The teaching system is divided into three administrative
sectors: the Ministry of Folk Education, the governing body
of the universities and the Ministry of Arts and Native
Affairs. The latter deals with issues relating to schools
that focus on arts and crafts. The country is divided into
nine school districts, one for each department, with
elementary schools, secondary schools and technical schools.
The majority of the education system is state-funded, but
private schools are allowed. See TOPSCHOOLSINTHEUSA for TOEFL, ACT, SAT testing locations and high school codes in Bolivia.
The school obligation covers the age between 6 and 14
years, but several children receive limited schooling. This
may be due to traditional resistance to education, long
distances to schools or lack of school resources. Many
students, especially in rural areas, end up prematurely
helping with family support. It is estimated that about 90%
of children receive schooling during at least some of their
upbringing. About 30% of 15-17 year olds go on to upper
The country has six state and two private universities;
In addition, there are two technical colleges. Of the adult
population, 17% are estimated to be illiterate (24% of
The October 2014 presidential and parliamentary elections
were a major victory for Morales and MAS, rising from 53.7%
to 61.4% of the vote. MAS received 88 of the seats among the
Chamber of Deputies 130 and 25 of the Senate's 36. Morales
was the country's historically most popular president, and
at the same time became the longest sitting. The popularity
was mainly due to the fact that he was the president of the
poor, who until 2014 had reduced poverty by 25% and extreme
poverty by 43%.
Economic growth in the country was high. In 2014 alone it
was 6.95%. It was mainly based on the export of natural gas
and zinc. The two main trading partners were Brazil and
Argentina, which together accounted for over half of the
In October 2015, Evo Morales had served 9 years and 9
months on the presidential post, thus becoming the country's
longest-serving president. His enormous popularity was
mainly due to the socio-economic reforms that had drawn
millions from poverty. In his reign, extreme poverty was
reduced by 43% and poverty by 25%.
In February 2016, a referendum to amend the constitution
was held that would have paved the way for Morales to stand
for a 4th presidential term in 2019, but he and MAS narrowly
lost the vote as 51.3% voted against. The turnout was at a
record high of 85.5%.
In August, Deputy Interior Minister Rodolfo Illanes was
killed during a miner's demonstration. The miners objected
to the change in an addition to the Cooperative Law that
gave them the right to organize.