It is 9 years free and compulsory schooling in Bosnia and
Herzegovina from the children is 7 years. The high school of
3-4 years is divided into vocational and a general field of
study, which qualify for higher education.
There are four universities in the country: Sarajevo,
Banja Luka, Mostar and Tuzla. See TOPSCHOOLSINTHEUSA for TOEFL, ACT, SAT testing locations and high school codes in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Since the Civil War ended in 1995, the educational system
has been rebuilt. Over 90% of children attend school, and
illiteracy was estimated at 2.8% in 2000.
At a secret meeting in 1877, Russia transferred the right to
occupy Bosnia-Herzegovina to the Austrians, who in turn
guaranteed it to remain neutral in the impending
Russian-Turkish war. Following the Turkish-Russian War of
1877-1878, the Congress in Berlin approved the wishes of the
locals and Serbs, and transferred Bosnia-Herzegovina to
Austria-Hungary. Bosnia and Herzegovina attempted to launch
an armed uprising that forced Vienna to intervene with
200,000 soldiers in 1878.
The "Young Turks" uprising in 1908 solved the crisis of
the Ottoman Empire. The new Turkish government proposed that
Bosnia-Herzegovina be represented in the Istanbul
parliament, which was accepted by the nationalists, who
believed they had more opportunity to carry out their
demands here, but Austria-Hungary sabotaged the process and
annexed the two provinces in 1908 with tacit cheapening from
the Russians. Vienna founded a provincial council, Sabor,
without representation in Vienna or Budapest.
The constitution, introduced in 1910, sought to resolve
the social and religious tensions by introducing three
electoral colleges: for the Orthodox, for the Catholics and
for the Muslims, each with a predetermined number of members
in the Sabor Council.
The influence of the Mlada Bosna movement, "Young
Bosnia", and of other nationalist and social democratic
groups, forced the authorities to abolish Sabor in Bosnia
and dissolve several Serbian enclaves. The Austrian heir,
Archduke Franz Ferdinand, and his wife, the Duchess of
Hohenberg, were murdered in June 1914 in Sarajevo by a
Bosnian-Serbian student. Austria declared war on Serbia, and
it was the beginning of the first World War.
Expatriates founded in Peru in 1915 The Yugoslav
Committee - Yugoslavs means Southern Slavs - which launched
a vigorous campaign in favor of independence and a union of
Yugoslavs. On December 1 of that year, the Serbian, Croatian
and Slavic kingdoms, which included Bosnia and Herzegovina,
were proclaimed. In 1919, the Yugoslav Communist Party was
formed, which obtained 14% of parliamentary seats, which was
banned in 1920. The country was renamed the Kingdom of
Yugoslavia in 1929, following a coup that marked the start
of persecution campaigns against Communists, trade unionists
and opponents of Serbian supremacy.
Yugoslavia was occupied by the Nazis in 1941, and the
Communists, led by Tito, initiated, with the assistance of
the Allies, the resistance struggle. At the end of the war,
the country was united as a Federal Republic, one of which
With this federal form, in conjunction with Tito's
leadership, it managed to achieve half a century of inner
peace. The development plans prioritized the most
disadvantaged provinces and the integration of the various
community groups. After Tito's death in 1980, the leadership
was transferred to a college, with representation from all
the republics, and a one-year presidential post that went on
a lap between them. It turned out that this new regime,
rather than dampening rivalry between the Federal Republics,
helped to strengthen it.