Schooling is officially compulsory between the ages of 6
and 12, but the realization has been made more difficult due
to a lack of schools and teachers, civil war and competition
from Koran schools. In 2003, 61% of children of current age
were estimated to start primary school. The corresponding
proportion was 11% for the upper secondary school. The
proportion was higher in the southern parts of the country
than in the north. At all levels, the proportion of girls is
clearly lower than the proportion of boys.
During the 1980s, the entire education system was adapted
to local conditions, and vocational education at the upper
secondary level was strengthened (education in technology,
administration, pedagogy, post and telecommunications,
health care and agriculture). Language of instruction is
consistently French and Arabic. A upper secondary education
of 4 + 3 years gives access to universities, technical
colleges and teachers' colleges. The country's only
university is in the capital N'Djamena.
According to UNESCO, in 2009, literacy among the
population over 15 years was 34% (44% for men and 23% for
women). In the same year, 13% of government spending went to
the education sector.
Youssouf Saleh Abbas was inducted into the post of prime
minister in April 2008 after Déby removed Delwa Kassiré
Koumakoye from the post. Koumakoye was apparently removed
from the post because he had disagreed with the agreement
reached between government and opposition in September 2007.
Another reason apparently was that he had not averted the
rebellion against N'Djamena. Abbas, on the other hand, was
from the eastern part of the country, which should give him
a better condition for negotiating with the rebels. Part of
the opposition saw the replacement of the Prime Minister as
a positive sign, while others regarded it as irrelevant
since the real problem was Déby.
In January 2010, Chad requested the UN Security Council
to withdraw the peacekeeping force, MINURCAT. The posting
did not, in the Government's opinion, produce the desired
results. In May, Chad put renewed pressure on the Security
Council, which decided to withdraw the force by 1 January.
31th December. Already on January 15, Chad and Sudan had
signed an agreement to normalize the otherwise tense
relationship between the two countries. They should no
longer allow armed groups from the other country to reside
in their territory. In March, the two countries established
a joint border patrol to monitor smugglers and armed groups.
In July, Sudanese President Omar Al-Bashir visited N'Djamena
for negotiations for the first time in many years - despite
an international arrest warrant by the ICC.
Emmanuel Nadingar was inducted into the post of prime
minister in March 2010 after Déby removed Saleh Abbas. Abbas
had not attended government meetings since December, and
there were supposed to be political differences between the
president and the prime minister.
The humanitarian situation in the country continued to be
disastrous. About 68,000 refugees from the Central African
Republic lived in camps in the southern part of the country;
262,000 Darfur refugees lived in 12 camps in the eastern
part of the country; and 180,000 of Chad's own residents
were on the run internally. Among other things. due to
floods and ethnic conflicts.
In 2011, Déby was elected to a new presidential term.
In July 2012, the ICC ordered Senegal to "without
hesitation" bring Hissène Habré to trial or extradite him to
international prosecution. After many years of delaying the
process, the new Senegal government, led by Macky Sall, in
August entered into an agreement with the AU to set up a
special court with judges appointed by the AU to handle
Habré's case. In June 2013, Habré was arrested in Senegal
and the following month before the court and charged with
crimes against humanity, torture and war crimes. The court
expected the case to start in early 2015.