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China Study and Training

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Before 1949, the vast majority of China's population was illiterate. Since then, the Chinese Communist Party has given high priority to education, although disagreements have occasionally existed within the party on the function and content of education. "Rather red than expert!" was a slogan during the Cultural Revolution. During other periods, slogans with the opposite meaning existed. During the Cultural Revolution, the entire education system was attacked, and higher education was largely abolished. The ideological features of education were reduced during the 1980s, when the importance of professional knowledge and research for China's modernization was emphasized. Compulsory schooling was extended, and government spending on education increased. School fees remained at all stages, and school books must be purchased by the students. Today, 99% of all children attend primary school.

Education in ChinaThe compulsory school is generally six years old and compulsory. In the most remote regions there is a five-year primary school. In 1986, the National People's Congress passed a law on 9-year compulsory schooling, which would have been implemented throughout the country at the turn of the century. It was a very comprehensive and resource-intensive reform that had to be implemented step by step, and in 2003 the goal was moved to 2008. Prior to compulsory school is a three-year preschool, which is largely implemented in the cities. There, play, sports and music play an important role, as does social training, which is considered to be especially important for children without siblings. During the first six years of compulsory school, students study Chinese, mathematics, science subjects, geography, history, music and art/image. Of the students, 98% go on to the three-year high school, and of those, two-thirds then go on to high school after the entrance exam. Politics and foreign languages are also studied at these levels. Of the upper secondary schools, close to a tenth are specialized in engineering or medicine, agriculture, business administration or law. A state degree is required to continue at universities and colleges. There is extremely fierce competition for the best universities, which are considered to be Beida and Qinghua in Beijing, as well as Fudan and Shanghai Jia Tong in Shanghai. In the last decade, the number of higher education institutions has increased significantly, and they have gained greater autonomy. For the university degree, certain compulsory courses are required, for example in politics/ideology and English. In the last decade, the number of higher education institutions has increased significantly, and they have gained greater autonomy. For the university degree, certain compulsory courses are required, for example in politics/ideology and English. In the last decade, the number of higher education institutions has increased significantly, and they have gained greater autonomy. For the university degree, certain compulsory courses are required, for example in politics/ ideology and English. See TOPSCHOOLSINTHEUSA for TOEFL, ACT, SAT testing locations and high school codes in China.

In 1990, 182 million Chinese were illiterate, in 2003 only 85 million. The UN then estimated that nine out of ten Chinese people over the age of 15 were literate. It is a very high proportion of being in a developing country. However, there are major regional differences, and in poor, sparsely populated rural areas, literacy is still low. There, it has not been uncommon for parents to be unable to pay school fees, which is why younger adults can also be illiterate. In 2006, the state announced that school fees for elementary school would be removed for 150 million rural students. It can be seen as a form of financial support for poor peasant households. In most cities, school fees are very high for children of migrant workers.

Education in China

2018 Trade War with the United States

In 2018, US President Trump launched a trade war targeting the EU, Australia and China. Initially in the form of special duties on aluminum and steel. However, the war from the middle of the year focused on China, which was also the country with the largest trade deficit in the US. China sued the United States for the WTO and responded proportionately each time to US protectionist obstacles. Although China was immediately hit hardest, China's economy was far better padded to handle the war than the United States. The United States has for decades financed its government deficit by selling government bonds to China. At the same time, the US war against its allies had the consequence of being thrown into the arms of China. In October, for example, Japan's Prime Minister Shinzo Abe raised to China to discuss trade and economic cooperation. The relationship between the two East Asian heavyweights has historically been heavily burdened by the heinous Japanese war crimes in China in the 1930s and 40s. As a result, Abe had 500 business executives to discuss close economic cooperation with China. ("New trajectory":, Guardian 24/10 2018)

October was the first full month in which US sanctions followed through with China. The consequence was that the so-called purchasing manager index fell to 50.2 in October. The lowest since July 2016. In September it was 50.8. The index is such that when it reaches below 50, there is negative growth in the economy. The state responded by partly pumping liquidity into the economy, "keeping the wheels rolling" by stimulating Chinese consumption, and gradually lowering the value of the Chinese currency Yuan. With 6.96 Yuan per dollar approached the magical limit of 7. The weaker Chinese currency to some extent offset the US trade war by making Chinese goods cheaper in the rest of the world. The Chinese central bank is exceptionally strong and can continue this policy for years - unlike the US. But all things being equal, it obviously goes beyond Chinese growth. The trade war is not free, but neither is it for the United States. And not for the rest of the world either. A slowdown in China's economy will hit both industrialized countries such as Germany and Japan hard as exports to China decline, but also hit commodity-producing countries. In January 2019, the United States escalated the security policy war by promising financial and military assistance to Taiwan. The purpose was to put additional pressure on China and jump on the new superpower's tender toe - the relationship with Taiwan. (but also affects the commodity producing countries. In January 2019, the United States escalated the security policy war by promising financial and military assistance to Taiwan. The purpose was to put additional pressure on China and jump on the new superpower's tender toe - the relationship with Taiwan. (but also affects the commodity producing countries. In January 2019, the United States escalated the security policy war by promising financial and military assistance to Taiwan. The purpose was to put additional pressure on China and jump on the new superpower's tender toe - the relationship with Taiwan.

 

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