In ancient Czechoslovakia, science and education have a
long tradition, mainly in Bohemia and Moravia; In Prague,
Karl IV founded a university (the famous Charles University,
founded in 1348, the oldest in Central Europe). After
previously being taken care of by the church, the education
system was subordinated to the state administration from the
18th century. The Czech became the language of instruction
in the Bohemia-Moravia in the 19th century, and in 1868 the
Technical University of Prague was divided into a
Czech-speaking and a German-speaking unit. See
topschoolsintheusa for test centers of ACT, SAT, and GRE
as well high schools in the country of Czech Republic.
Until the end of the Second World War, the Czech Republic
largely retained the Austro-Hungarian school system. In
1944, all schools were nationalized, and in 1948 the entire
school system was adapted to Soviet designs, which meant a
nine-year unit school followed by middle school and high
school and vocational school. In 1984, they switched to
ten-year compulsory schooling. The minorities (Hungarians,
Poles and Ukrainians) were then also entitled to education
in the mother tongue.
After the fall of communism, the school duty has been
shortened to nine years. Secondary schools offer 4-8-year
programs and in cases where upper secondary education is
longer than four years, compulsory schooling is shortened by
the corresponding number of years. During the 1990s, a large
number of private (including church) chartered schools
emerged, especially high schools. Higher education in the
Czech Republic is free of charge. There are 26 state
universities and colleges as well as a large number of
The center of scientific research is, above all, the
Czech Academy of Sciences in Prague.
In the early 13th century, the church was separated from
the state and the nobility demanded greater influence on the
political divide. At the same time, the population increased
significantly due to Germanic immigration which, thanks to
the founding of new cities and mining, developed into a
class of traders.
During the Przemysl dynasty, until 1306, Bohemia
controlled parts of Austria and the Alpine region and
"shared" the king with Poland. As a consequence of the
heyday of Luxembourg, which occurred around 1310, Bohemia
and the Vatican were merged when Charles the First was
declared Emperor. Prague, which gained the status of
capital, then experienced its heyday.
The Reformation grew in strength in the 14th century and
became radicalized under the leadership of Father Juan Hus
from the Chapel of Bethlehem to Prague. House wanted in the
band by the Pope was convicted of heresy and rebellion by
the council in Constanza and died at the stake in 1415 after
refusing to repent.
The indignation over Hus's death gave rise to the
formation of the Hussian movement in Bohemia and Moravia.
The Germans, however, remained loyal to Rome; To the
religious disagreements was now added the ethnic issue,
which was amplified by the political conflict. The Holy
Empire, associated with the Germanic princes, led several
campaigns against Bohemia, but was defeated by the Hussists.
The religious divide prevented a union between Bohemia
and its former possessions for a number of years. Vladislav
II ruled Bohemia from 1471, but Moravia, Silesia and Lusacia
belonged to Mathias of Hungary. Only after Mathias' death in
1490, Vladislav was proclaimed king of Hungary and in this
way a reunion was achieved.
Louis 'death of the 2 in 1526 paved the way for the
Habsburg dynasty, and Louis' brother-in-law, Ferdinand the
1st, sat down on the throne. Austria's triumph in the
conflict with the Schmalkaldian Protestant Society in 1547,
allowed Ferdinand to inherit the throne of Bohemia and its
The government of the Austrian royal house supported the
counter-reform throughout the region, including Slovakia,
for the Habsburgs maintained their grip on them when Hungary
was invaded by the Turks in 1526.
Rudolf the 2nd (1576-1612) moved the Empire's
headquarters to Prague and the city once again became one of
the most important political and cultural centers on the
continent. Rudolf's Catholic upbringing enabled his fellow
believers to attain the highest positions in the kingdom's
hierarchy, but at the same time it was the beginning of a
rebellion, the measure of the Reformed population and the
king deposed in 1611.
After a stormy period, Ferdinand defeated the 2nd of
Estonia, with the support of Maximillian the 1st of Bavaria,
the Protestants and they were subject to a hard-fought
regime. German became the official language of Czech and
only Catholicism was allowed.
The Moravians, just like Bohemia, participated in the
battle against the Habsburgs but suffered less from the
consequences of the religious and civil strife. The
religious tolerance in Moravia gave way to a flourishing of
Protestants in the country, which remained an area separate
from the Austrian royal house until 1848.
Despite the German supremacy and the ban on political
activities, the Czechs retained their ethnic identity,
language and culture. Something similar had taken place in
the Hungarian counties where Slovakians lived. It provided
the basis for the renaissance of nationalism in the early
19th century and strengthened the ties between the two
Inspired by the revolutionary wave that swept across
Europe in 1848, Czechs and Slovaks, along with German
Republicans, participated in the attempt to put an end to
the Empire. The empire was divided in 1867 into two:
Austria, where the German majority ruled Czechs, Poles and
other population groups, and Hungary, where Hungarians
suppressed the Slovakians.
The fall of the Austro-Hungarian Empire during World War
I led to the recognition of the Republic of Czechoslovakia.
The new nation, whose boundary had been drawn in 1919 by the
victors after the World War, had incorporated parts of
Poland, Hungary and Sudeterland, where 3 million Germans
lived - here lay the seed for future conflicts.
A national council was assigned by the Czech and Slovak
leaders the task of drafting a new constitution. The council
chose to propose a parliamentary system in which the
president and his cabinet were accountable to two
legislative assemblies and for the first time introduced the
right to vote and suffrage for women.