In Denmark, education is compulsory for children and
adolescents between the ages of 6 and 16. Whether education
takes place in a public school, in a private school or at
home is a matter of individual choice. It is the education
itself that is compulsory, not school.
Organization of education in Denmark
From August 2013, the Ministry of Social Affairs,
Children and Integration has overall responsibility for
the so-called day care (kindergartens, etc.).
The Ministry of Education is responsible for primary
and secondary education, while the Ministry of Research,
Innovation and Higher Education is responsible for most
of the higher education. However, the Ministry of
Culture is responsible for higher education which
includes arts and culture.
The primary schools are administered by the
municipalities, the upper secondary schools by the county
municipalities (counties). Universities and colleges are
mainly state-run. All educational institutions are
subsidized by the state.
There are private schools at all levels, and the
proportion of private schools is rising. In 2011, about 25
per cent of all primary schools in the country were private
schools, and 14 per cent of the pupils attend such schools.
In total, state aid accounts for 75 per cent of the income
of private primary schools, while user payments from parents
make up the remaining 25 per cent.
All children from the age of 26 weeks are entitled to day
care. Each municipality is obliged to ensure that there is
enough space. Daycare can be secured in several different
- Municipal day care institutions- includes
municipal-owned institutions such as a nursery
from 26 weeks of age and a kindergarten from
three years of age. Often these are gathered in a
so-called age-integrated institution. That is, a
kindergarten with both toddler and grandchildren
- Self-employed day care institutions-
privately owned day care centers, subject to municipal
supervision and with an operating agreement with the
- Outsourced day care centers- from 1 August
2011, municipalities can tender the operation of day
care centers on tenders. Private suppliers have the
opportunity to withdraw any profits from operations.
- Municipal daycare- up to five children are
cared for in a private home by a so-called daycare
- Private daycare- private daycare with an
operating agreement with the municipality receives
children in their own home.
- Approved private institutions- operated by
private suppliers after approval by the municipality.
They receive subsidies per child, have their own
admission outside the municipal admission, and the
owners can withdraw any profits from the operation.
In 2009, approximately 93 per cent of children aged 1–5
years had a day care. For children aged 3-5 years the figure
was 98 per cent. From 1992 all preschool teachers will have
the same educational education as teachers in primary
school. Danish kindergarten teachers are among the best-paid
kindergarten teachers in the world. See TOPSCHOOLSINTHEUSA for TOEFL, ACT, SAT testing locations and high school codes in Denmark.
The Danish primary school comprises a one-year
preschool, a 9-year elementary school, and a voluntary 10th
year. Children start in the so-called kindergarten class
in the year they turn six, and since August 2009 this
has been compulsory on par with primary school. The scheme
of a voluntary 10th class, introduced in 1962, has been the
subject of discussion for many years. Almost half of the
students still take 10th grade, even though they have the
opportunity to start high school after 9th grade.
In 1994, a new primary school law came into force. The
central idea behind the reform for primary school is that
every student should have the opportunity to develop as wide
a range of abilities as possible. This entails an extended
concept of learning. Pupils cannot only be assessed in
relation to reading and writing skills, but must be assessed
on a broader basis, which requires differentiation in
teaching. The other major change is that English teaching
will begin in the 4th grade as opposed to the former 5th
grade, and that French should be offered as an alternative
to German as a second foreign language. The new field of
natural technology will be introduced from the first class.
The reform adds more responsibility and opportunities for
influence to each school and its parents. The main principle
is that what is to be taught is determined centrally, but
how it is taught can be determined locally.
Almost all students continue in high school after
completing primary school. There is a distinction between
upper secondary education (general education) and
vocational education (vocational studies).
In 2009, there were 169 high schools in Denmark. The
upper secondary school is 3 years old and is divided into
two main study areas, one for language and one for science.
About half of the teaching content is common to all high
school students. At the end of the upper secondary school,
the students will be admitted to the student exam (STX),
which is partly written, or oral, and which provides study
skills for higher education. A 2-year student course also
leads to the student exam.
In 1967, the so-called higher preparation exam
(HF) was introduced as a parallel to the student exam.
It is based on a 2-year educational program and was
introduced at a time when it was concerned with expanding
educational opportunities for more social groups in society.
In the same way, 3-year courses that lead to a higher degree
(HHX) and a higher technical degree (HTX) provide study
skills for higher education.
Vocational training, vocational education and
training, was changed in 1996. It lasts 3-4 years and is
based on a collaboration between school and working life
with part of the education in a business school or technical
school and part as an apprentice in business. A new law on
vocational training came into force in 2001.
In Denmark, the home of the Folk High School, there are
about 70 public colleges for pupils who have reached the age
of 17 (2011). Most are run on the basis of the basic Twigian
principles. The first was Rødding in 1844. Askov came in
1865, Testrup 1866 and Vallekilde 1865. The first working
college was established in Esbjerg in 1910.
Denmark has 8 universities in addition to a number of
colleges and vocational schools. It is a stated political
goal that 60 per cent of each year's school should take
higher education. In 2007, about 33 per cent of the entire
Danish population had higher education.
The University of Copenhagen was founded by Christian 1
in 1479 and has six faculties. Aarhus University began in
1928 as a semi-private, half-municipal institution, and was
taken over by the state in 1970. Odense University began its
business in 1966. The university centers in Roskilde and
Aalborg started their business in 1972 and 1974
The Polytechnic Institute of Education, the Technical
University of Denmark, was founded in 1829 and is located in
Lyngby. In Copenhagen is the Danish School of Teaching
(founded in 1856) with further education for primary school
teachers, the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural College
(1856), the Danish School of Pharmacy (1892), the Royal
Danish Academy of Fine Arts (1754) and the Royal Danish
Music Conservatory (1867). Business colleges are located in
Copenhagen (1917) and Aarhus (1939).
There are also a large number of specialized vocational
colleges, among them the seminars that educate primary
school teachers, and which can be traced back to approx.
The oldest testimonies about school in Denmark are about
Ansgar in the 800s. By the Church Ordinance of 1537, all
boys in the market towns were to be trained in Latin and
Christianity. From the 17th century came schools for girls.
The first equestrian schools were established in 1721. Erik
Pontoppidan published his textbook Truth to Godliness
The primary school originated in the thought of pietism
that everyone must be able to read and understand the words
of the scriptures. In 1814, compulsory education, but not
compulsory schooling, was introduced for children aged 7-14.
These principles were enshrined in the Constitution of 1849.
The Public Schools Act was revised in 1899, and the
political system change in 1901 paved the way for
significant school reforms. In 1972 the school duty was
extended to 9 years.
The gymnasium originates in medieval Catholic cathedral
and monastic schools (Ribe, Viborg and Roskilde from the
1100s). By the Ordinance on the Learned Schools in Denmark
and Norway of 1809, the old priest's school was transformed
into an official school, which was to combine the study of
Latin and Greek with the teaching of natural sciences and
modern languages. From 1850 the sciences got more room. The
school's primary goal was to provide general education and
then to prepare for the university. In 1903, the learned
school or Latin school was abolished, girls gained access to
the high school, and the unit school was established as a
Forced separation of spouses
When Jews arrived at the Nazi concentration camps in the
1940's, men and women were separated. In February 2016,
Minister for xenophobia Inger Støjbjerg decided that married
couples among refugees where at least one was under the age
of 18 should be separated so that they were sent to
different asylum centers. The same was true even if the
couple had children. In the following months, the Refugee
Agency executed the Minister's order for the vast majority
of the 28 couples already in question. A year later, the
Ombudsman issued a statement stating that the Minister's
order was in violation of the legislation requiring
treatment to be taken in each case. (In addition, the order
was also in violation of the Human Rights Convention). The
only reason the minister survived the criminal practice
found was that the Danish People's Party supported the
In January 2018, Syrian couple Rimaz Alkayal (17) and
Alnour Alwan (26) filed a lawsuit against the Ministry of
Integration claiming $ 50,000 in damages because the 4-month
Minister of Integration had forced them to live separately
in two different asylum centers.
The scandals surrounding Inger Støjbjerg continued into
2018. In December 2016, the European Court of Human Rights
handed down a verdict in Paposhvili v Belgium. In its
ruling, the court unanimously ruled that banning sick asylum
seekers was prohibited. The «Integrations» Ministry knew
about the verdict and knew that Denmark would comply with
the verdict as well, but still continued the expulsion of
sick asylum seekers throughout 2017. On the way, Danish
police killed a sick asylum seeker aboard a plane as they
tried to get him expelled . In other words, the case was
about both Danish violation of the Declaration of Human
Rights and murder committed by the Danish state. The
violations hit the media in December 2017 and led to new
consultations with Støjbjerg.
Prime Minister Lars Rasmussen tried in January 2018 to
change the interpretation of the European Declaration of
Human Rights. This happened during a speech to the Council
of Europe. The speech sparked the outrage and amazement
among the delegates of the other European countries.
Rasmussen's argument was that the Declaration of Human
Rights prevented Denmark from expelling criminals. But
already in 2017, both the Department of Human Rights and
Amnesty International had dismissed this as some gossip.
With the increasingly serious violations of human rights in
Denmark, there is a great benevolence among civilian
politicians not to stop the Danish state criminal act, but
to abolish human rights.
In January, too, Denmark began the largest reconstruction
in decades. War appropriations for 2018-23 increased by $
12.8 billion. DKr. As a result, the annual war budget should
grow from 22 billion. DKr in 2017 to DKK 27bn in 2023. The
build-up came on top of the almost $ 100 billion. DKr
Denmark over the following decades should spend on the
procurement and maintenance of new warplanes. The armament
was to be used both to secure Denmark's participation in
international warring wars and as something new to the
militarization of society by allowing soldiers to take over
police and border guard duties. But Minister of War Claus
Hjort Frederiksen's main argument for the armament was "the
threat from Russia". However, a threat picture the Defense
Intelligence Service could not recognize. The FE's own
threat assessment from autumn 2017 stated: it is «... Russia
is unlikely to make a direct military attack on the three
Baltic countries and Russia will not risk a direct
confrontation with NATO. " NATO war budgets are 20 times
larger than Russia's. The real reason for the buildup was
that in 2017, the United States appointed Russia and China
as its strategic military enemies and therefore decided to
arm. This was in line with President Trump's desire to make
"the United States great again" through the buildup and
increased military production. In other words, Denmark was
merely a slogan for the US strategy to maintain its own
control over the world. that in 2017, the United States
appointed Russia and China as its strategic military enemies
and therefore decided to arm. This was in line with
President Trump's desire to make "the United States great
again" through the buildup and increased military
production. In other words, Denmark was merely a slogan for
the US strategy to maintain its own control over the world.
In 2017, Denmark reaffirmed its position as tailor for
not only the US but also Turkey's and Israel's foreign
policy - in the same way that the country emerged in 1900-45
was a tailgate to Germany's foreign policy. In November
2017, the Copenhagen City Court sentenced Danish-Kurdish
woman Joana Palani to 9 months unconditional imprisonment
for fighting IS as part of the Syrian-Kurdish YPG militia.
It was an order from Turkeywhich is strategically allied
with IS and fights YPG and PKK. In June, a 32-year-old man
from Esbjerg was allowed to keep his passport after fighting
the YPG, despite the fact that the prosecution had demanded
it be withdrawn. The ruling was handed down in the Esbjerg
District Court and later upheld in the Western Lands Court.
The judgment on Palani illustrated that the courts ruled on
a political, not legal, basis. For decades, Danes had fought
in the Foreign Legion and committed war crimes in Africa;
Danish-Israelis had for decades fought in the Israeli army
and committed war crimes against the Palestinians. Yes,
Herbert Pundik had even admitted that he had been involved
in the massacre of Palestinians in 1948. And in 1995 Niels
Holck had dropped 4 tons of weapons in West Bengal in
support of the Ananda Marga movement. All without penalty.
Denmark also became a tailor for Israel in 2017. In
spring 2017, Israel contacted Foreign Minister Anders
Samuelsen and demanded that Denmark cease its support for 24
Palestinian NGOs. Denmark did then - while the Netherlands,
Switzerland and Sweden continued to support. Unlike Denmark,
these countries did not want to be the tail end of Israel's
arbitrary persecution of Palestinian NGOs. In December,
Israel celebrated its governance of Danish foreign policy.
(Israel knocked at the table. And then Denmark changed its
support for NGOs in Israel and Palestine, Information