In 1985 elections were held. In a climate of political
banding, allegations of electoral fraud and incarceration of
opposition leaders, Doe officially received 50.9% of the
vote. The two strongest opposition parties - Liberia's
Peoples Party (LPP) and United Peoples Party (UPP) - were
not allowed to participate in the election at all.
In 1987, most of the state's revenue came from the United
States government. The superpower had vital interests in the
country, such as $ 450 million investment, military bases, a
Voice of America broadcasting station that covered the area,
as well as the communications center for the North American
diplomatic missions in Africa.
In May 1990, the National Patriotic Front of Liberia
(NPFL) launched an attack on the city of Gbarnga, 120 km
from the capital, and within a short time the guerrilla
movement managed to bring more points in the country under
In June, NPFL led Charles Taylor appeared to be
victorious in a short period of time, but when the Battle of
Monrovia was launched in July, the front split and the
Independent Patriotic Front of Liberia (INPFL) led by Prince
Johnson emerged. On July 31, 200 civilian refugees in a
Lutheran mission were killed by government soldiers.
In September 1990, President Samuel Doe was killed by
Johnson's troops, and in the confusing situation that
ensued, Johnson, Taylor, Amos Sawyer and Raleigh Seekie (the
former Chief of Do's Presidential Guard) declared themselves
In November, Sawyer formed a Provisional Government
recognized by the Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Nigeria, Burkina
Faso and Togo. At the same time, a peace force consisting of
10,000 soldiers from Nigeria, 1,000 from Ghana and 600 from
Guinea was sent into the country.
In 1992, Taylor was offered the vice presidential post by
Sawyer but declined. The NPFL had a significant portion of
the land under its control through the Patriotic National
Assembly for Reconstruction. In August, an attack by the
United Liberation Movement of Liberia for Democracy (ULIMO)
on Tubmanburg north of Monrovia cost 2,000 NPFL partisans
In November, ULIMO split. Alhaji Kromah, who was accused
of being associated with the Muslim groups and the
government of Libya, led the faction that settled in
Tubmanburg. Raleigh Seekie led the faction established in
In June 1993, ULIMO carried out an attack on the refugee
camp in Kata. Acc. The UN High Commissioner for Refugees
killed 450 people during the massacre and many of the
corpses were abused.
The United States now supported the UN entering the
conflict. This provided a green light for the Security
Council to demand a ceasefire and launch a blockade of
weapons supplies and other goods for the warring factions.
Fighting fatigue and UN interference led to the signing
of a peace treaty in Geneva on 17 July 1993. The two main
armed groups and Sawyer's provisional government agreed to a
7-month ceasefire and the conduct of parliamentary
The NPFL repeatedly protested against attacks by ULIMO,
and the civil war flared up again. The UN embargo and the
subsequent lack of food triggered a wave of civilian abuse
on the part of the guerrillas.
In accordance with the Geneva agreement, in August it was
decided to form a transitional State Council with
representatives from NPFL, ULIMO and the Sawyer government.
The international organization Doctors Without Borders
suffered 60% of children in the NPFL controlled areas of
malnutrition and 20% suffered from diseases caused by the
lack of protein. In some areas, 15 children die a day.
In March 1994, the Council of State met for the first
time, but the composition of a new government was postponed
until May due to disagreements between the three parties.
Meanwhile, the armed clashes between the rival armed groups
and with the Peace Force of the Economic Cooperation
Organization of the West African States (ECOMOG) continued.
In December, the 7 groups that were in armed combat
agreed to a ceasefire. Negotiations between the parties
involved continued in 1995 and the composition of the
Cabinet was expanded as Charles Taylor stepped in and a new
government was formed.