The former central government of the Moscow school system
has, with its independence, been replaced by a marked
emphasis on the school as the main instrument of Moldovan
nation-building. The compulsory compulsory school, in which
the children start at the age of 7, comprises eleven years.
The primary school is 4 years old and the secondary school 7
years old, divided into two stages (5 + 2). About 90% of
children attend primary school and about 80% secondary
school (2008). After compulsory school, vocational or
university preparatory courses follow.
The colleges are the part of the teaching system that was
most affected by the changes. Romanian has succeeded Russian
as the dominant language of instruction and syllabuses and
literature have been modernized and avidologized. The
previously strict divide between teaching and research has
been partially broken down by an incipient integration of
the Academy of Sciences and the universities. An example of
this is the new business school in the capital. Other higher
education institutions include the State University (1945),
the Polytechnic University (1964) and the Agricultural
University (1932), all located in Chișinău. In 2009, 21% of
the state's expenditure on education went.
In September 2010, a referendum to amend the constitution
was carried out so that in future the president should not
be elected by parliament with a 3/5 majority, but instead
directly by the people. Although 87.8% voted in favor of the
proposal, the voting percentage was as low as 30.3% and the
proposal therefore declined because it did not reach 33%.
Parliament was therefore dissolved and new elections were
held in November. In the election, the Communist Party PCRM
went a further 5.4% back to 39.3. In contrast, the Liberal
Democratic Party PLDM went 12.9% to 29.4%. However, the
opposition does not reach the 61 seats required to appoint a
president. In December, Marian Lupu assumed the post of
acting president. He was a former communist, but in 2009 he
became a liberal.
Independent Nicolae Timofti was elected President of
Parliament in March 2012, which happened after unsuccessful
polls in December and January when 2 other candidates had
been in the running. The Communist Party boycotted the vote
on the grounds that Parliament was illegitimate. Timofti
stated that his first priority would be the country's
orientation towards Europe - just like his predecessor. In
May, the President amended Act 100 on Civil Status, so
Moldavians who perceive Sim as Romanian rather than have to
identify themselves as Romanian to the Moldovan authorities.
In November 2012, Russia gave Moldova an ultimatum to
terminate its energy agreements with Europe, unless it would
lose the Russian gas discount.
In March 2013, Prime Minister Vladimir Filat lost a vote
of confidence in parliament and resigned, although President
Timofti issued a decree ordering him to continue in office.
In April, the Constitutional Court declared that a new prime
minister should be appointed - though not Filat. The
president therefore appointed Iurie Leancă as new acting
prime minister. In May, the former government coalition was
transformed into the "Pro-European Coalition" consisting of
the country's bourgeois parties. The coalition elected
Leancă as prime minister.
LGBT people are being persecuted and harassed in Moldova.
After banned Pride marches for several years, authorities
for the first time in 2013 allowed such a march, but the
march was halted by security forces as homophobic
counter-protesters found out where the march was to be
Torture and mistreatment of prisoners and detainees
continued to be widespread in the country, and security
forces enjoyed almost total impunity. In December 2013, a
police officer was acquitted of beating student Valeriu
Boboc to death April 7, 2009. Police subsequently claimed
that Boboc had died of poisoning. Subsequently, footage from
surveillance cameras was shown showing the police beating
Boboc. This evidence was ignored by the judge.
In November 2013, the country signed an association
agreement with the EU during the EU summit in Vilnius. The
country wanted to join the EU, but the unresolved problem of
the Transnistrian breakaway republic in the border with
Ukraine barred this.