Nepal's educational system is characterized by the
country's character of primitive agricultural land with the
unwillingness of parents to send their children, especially
the girls, to the school. This consists of primary school
(1981 extended from 3 to 5 year courses) and secondary
school (2 plus 3 year courses). School starts are at the age
of 6, but schooling is not compulsory and the absence rate,
even among those who are registered, is high. The dropout
rate at both the primary and secondary stages is very high,
especially at the beginning of the stages. Only a third of
the girls start school. See TOPSCHOOLSINTHEUSA for TOEFL, ACT, SAT testing locations and high school codes in Nepal.
The secondary school leads to a school leaving
certificate, which however only a small minority
manages to conquer. Literacy in the mid-1990s was about 47%
for women and 82% for men. The school receives about 10% of
Birendra's monarchy was accused of systematically
violating human rights. In mid-1989, 300 political prisoners
were held in the Nepali prisons. Of these, 200 were detained
under the Public Security Act of 1961, also known as
Kalo Kanoon (the black law). Like other King's laws,
this is a violation of the protection of human rights
enshrined in the 1962 Constitution.
On April 12, 1991, the first free elections were held in
Nepal after 32 years of semi-monarchist rule. Nepal's
Communist Party and Congress Party formed an alliance for
the election, and other parties joined it. The Communists
got 4 of the 5 seats in the capital, but most of the
mandates went to the ruling Congress party.
On May 15, Prime Minister Bhattarai resigned. The new
government appointed Congressman Girija Prasad Koirala as
new prime minister. He promised to introduce mixed
economics, earmark 70% of the state's revenue to the land,
and implement a land reform. At the same time, he did the
first 4 years of schooling for free.
In late 1991, the opposition criticized Koirala harshly
for signing some agreements with India. They were
characterized as "selling out national interests" as India
gained access to 5 hydropower projects. The prime minister
defended that it was difficult to conclude secret agreements
on the country's natural resources when the new constitution
required parliament to approve these types of resolutions by
a two-thirds majority.
The rivers that originate in the Himalayas and run
through Nepal make the country one of the world's richest in
terms of hydropower and hydropower potential. Government
policy is oriented towards harnessing this potential for
energy generation, flood control and irrigation projects.
The governments of Nepal and India signed two agreements
- one on trade and the other on transport. Both from the
left and the right, the government was criticized for not
revising the 1950 Friendship Treaty. purchase weapons in
countries other than India.
Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala is also the Congress
Secretary-General, Foreign, Finance, Defense and Health
In March 1992, 22,000 refugees from Bhutan sought refuge
in Nepal due to ethnic conflicts in their homeland. In
April, a general strike and demonstrations against the
corruption and price increases were knocked down by the
government. It cost 6 people life. Curfew did not hinder the
conduct of new protests.
In order to attract foreign investment, in February 1993,
the Prime Minister made the Nepalese rupee fully
convertible to foreign currencies while concluding new trade
agreements with India. Development assistance to Nepal
represents two-thirds of the state budget.
In April 1993, an Indian-Nepalese Commission was set up
to investigate the bilateral trade agreement which in 1990
had led to a diplomatic crisis.
In the middle of the year, heavy monsoon rains caused
several regions of the country to be flooded, significant
crops were lost and 1,000 lost their lives. the official
As of 1994, the state demanded $ 50,000 from each of the
expeditions that wanted to climb Mt. Everest. In the same
year, plans were made for new planting of the mountains,
which had lost 70% of their vegetation.
Prime Minister Koirala was unable to show results in his
fight against poverty, illiteracy and in his development
programs. When he lost his parliamentary majority and the
conflicts tapered off in his congressional party, he was
forced to resign on July 10, 1994. In the November election,
Nepal's United Communist Party gained 88 seats in the House
of Representatives, thus overtaking the Congress party 83.
Man Mohan Adhikari was appointed new Prime Minister.