Pakistan's school system is a structure and main content
a legacy of colonial times. It consists of a primary stage
of 5 years (5-9 years), an intermediate stage of 3 years and
a secondary stage of 2 + 2 years. The ambition to include
all children in primary school has not been fulfilled. The
fact that only over 70% of 5-9 year olds attend school is
mainly due to the population's poverty, low participation of
girls, drop-out rates and insufficient educational
resources. After 10 years of schooling, a transition can be
made to a 3-5 year college, which provides technical or
medical education and leads to a bachelor's degree.
The schools are poorly equipped, and many must stay closed
during summer heat and winter cold. See TOPSCHOOLSINTHEUSA for TOEFL, ACT, SAT testing locations and high school codes in Pakistan.
In addition to the modern school system, there is a
traditional, Islamic embossed system, attached to the
mosques, where teaching about the Qur'an and this is
memorized. The religious schools teach only a small minority
but provide the modern system with the teachers who will
convey Islamic values to future generations.
Reading and writing skills have increased steadily since
the 1980s, but the proportion of illiterates is still high.
However, since the mid-00s, the positive development has
stopped. According to UNESCO, 79% of men and 62% of women
were literate in 2009. In the older part of the population
(over 65), literacy is below 25%.
Pakistan means "the land of the pure". It was religion -
Islam - that became the unifying force for a people of
different ethnicities and languages. The poet and
philosopher Mohamed Iqbal was the first to formulate the
concept of Pakistan simply when he proposed in 1931 the
formation of a state for the Muslims of India.
The first Muslims to arrive in the Indian subcontinent
were traders from Arabia and Persia. The first permanent
Muslim conquest was by Sind and was undertaken by Mohamed
ibn Qasim in 711. In the 13th century a major Muslim
principality was created in India with the capital of Delhi.
After the conquest of the area - including present-day
Pakistan - it was ruled by a number of Muslim dynasties, the
last of which was the Great Mughals.
The problems of Muslim identity became particularly
important as the Muslim power decayed and when Hindu
intermediate layers under British colonial rule in India
strengthened their position. At the beginning of the 20th
century, Muslim leaders in India agreed on the need to
develop an effective political organization. In October
1906, a delegation of Muslim leaders met with the King of
India in India - the highest representative of the British
imperial government in the country. They called for a reform
of the electoral system with a separate representation for
Muslims. That same year, the All India Muslim League
(India's Muslim League) was formed in Dacca in present-day
Bangladesh. Its purpose was to defend the political rights
and interests of the Indian Muslims. In 1909, the British
agreed to split the electoral system with the Indian
Government Act, which at the same time recognized the Muslim
League as a representative organization for the Indian
Throughout the 1930s, recognition among Muslims grew of
their distinctive identity and the need to preserve it
within their own geographical boundaries. Under the
leadership of Mohamed Ali Jinnah, the Muslim League
continued its campaign for Pakistan - a separate territory
within British India. Following the April 1946 elections,
the league convened a congress of Muslim MPs who had just
been elected to the Delhi parliament. At the request of
Hussain Shaheed Suhrawardi who was Prime Minister of Bengal,
Congress reiterated the demand for the creation of Pakistan.
1972 Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto to power
In keeping with the election results, Ali Bhutto took
over the post of President after Ayub Khan in the retreat of
western Pakistan. Gradually, relations with Bangladesh were
normalized and the civilian government under Bhutto's
leadership launched a series of reforms: minimum wage, price
controls, nationalization of half a hundred industries,
changes in civil and military administration, land reform
and transfer of, among other things. cotton-cleaning plants
and grain mills for public ownership. Compared to the 1960s,
in the first half of the 70s, greater emphasis was placed on
measures designed to improve living conditions among the
most disadvantaged. However, there was no radical change in
the development strategy, which continued to be based on the
private initiative in parallel with increased public
A new constitution that made Pakistan a Muslim republic
with Islam as a public religion was adopted in 1973. At the
March 1977 elections, the PPP gained a large majority.
Opposition parties gathered in a national alliance claimed
widespread electoral fraud. They boycotted the National
Assembly and mobilized large crowds for demonstrations to
bring Bhutto to a fall and get re-elected.