After its liberation, the country's educational system
was based on socialism with Kiswahili as the language of
instruction. In 1995, the Ministry of Education presented a
proposal for a new education policy. Here the socialist
aspect is removed. It will now be taught in both Kiswahili
and English from pre-school and throughout the education
system. In high school and higher education, English is used
as the language of instruction.
Officially, the school is free and compulsory for 7 years
for children aged 7 to 14 years. Students must pay school
fees to attend the 6-year high school (4 + 2 years). In
2002, 70% of the children in the relevant age group attended
primary school. See TOPSCHOOLSINTHEUSA for TOEFL, ACT, SAT testing locations and high school codes in Tanzania.
The country has 9 universities, the oldest being the
University of Dar es Salaam (founded 1961). In addition,
there are several vocational and technical colleges and an
Open University. According to UNESCO (2002), the illiteracy
of the adult population is approx. 23%.
In December 96, the country decided to expel most of the
540,000 Rwanda refugees who remained in the country. Many of
their fates were fatal when they returned to the same
conflicts they had fled from 2½ years earlier. Tanzania
continues to house 230,000 Hutu refugees from Rwanda and
50,000 refugees from the Democratic Republic of Congo - the
Production of the country's two most important export
products, coffee and cotton, dropped again in 1997. Benjamin
Mkapa asked for international assistance, declaring that 13
out of the country's 20 productive zones were unable to meet
the basic needs of the population - especially because of
the devastating climatic consequences of weather phenomenon
Parliament launched the debate on sexual offenses in 98
and recommended, inter alia, higher penalties for sexual
abuse of young people under 18. Poverty, the poor treatment
of children and adolescents in the country as well as rising
sex tourism were considered to be the main causes of rising
The first months of 1998 were marked by political
tensions between the capital and Zanzibar's civil unified
Front. The opposition criticized alleged electoral fraud in
1995 and the subsequent persecution of all those who
criticized the government.
In December 1998, a powerful bomb destroyed the US
embassy in Dar es Salaam, killing 11 and injuring 80.
By October 99, Julius Nyerere had died and his funeral
gathered dozens of heads of state from around the world. A
proposal to set up a semi-autonomous government for the
continent of the country triggered a wave of disputes
between the president and supporters of the proposal in
December. The idea was that the continental government
should be equated with the government of Zanzibar and the
government of the Union. However, this notion of a
federation between autonomous territories had been attacked
by Nyerere, but his death caused the proposal to reappear.
The intention was politically to equate the mainland
population with the population in Zanzibar, which already
has a semi-autonomous government.
The spike in the fighting in Burundi in early 2000 led to
an increase in the number of refugees arriving in Tanzania,
but the circumstances made the health and food assistance to
the refugees more difficult.
A number of constitutional reforms implemented in
February 2000 were criticized by opposition leader Fatma
Maghimbi. Acc. Maghimbi, it is dangerous to remove the
demand that the president have half the votes, and it is
dangerous to give the president the right to nominate his
own government. These are changes according to. Maghimbi
alone will benefit the ruling party.
In the October elections, Mkapa was re-elected with 72%
of the vote. In Zanzibar too, voters preferred CCM candidate
Amani Karume, but the notorious irregularities in the count
caused the opposition to reject the result. Only after a new
election in two of the island's electoral districts and
violent riots was Karume deployed in November as Zanzibar's