School and Education in Africa

Study opportunities

In recent years, Africa has become the focus of international students. It is no longer just African scientists and ethnologists who go to Africa to get to know the local languages ​​and cultures better. Since international companies are increasingly investing in African locations, more and more students in economic subjects are moving to the continent. Experts with knowledge of Africa are also in demand in the areas of tourism, art and culture.

University landscape in Africa

The study landscape in Africa is very different. Most students are drawn to South Africa, according to Countryaah. The relatively wealthy country has invested a lot of money in the expansion and reform of its higher education system in recent decades. This is reflected in international rankings, according to which the best universities on the continent are located in South Africa.

A large number of state and private universities offer a large selection of modern, practice-oriented courses. Another plus for international students: the study system corresponds to the Anglo-American model. The universities offer Bachelor, Master and PhD courses as well as postgraduate courses. The language of instruction is English. Further reasons for studying in South Africa are the well-developed infrastructure and the relatively low cost of living.

But other regions of Africa are also becoming increasingly interesting for international students. Economically emerging countries such as Ghana and Tanzania have invested large sums in their education system in recent years. Here, too, the official study language is English and the study systems correspond to the Bachelor-Master system. There are also collaborations with international institutions such as the private Norwegian organization Kulturstudier, which offers semester programs on topics such as environmental management and development aid. A unique opportunity to study during a semester abroad to immerse yourself in the fascinating world of Africa and at the same time to tackle the social and economic problems discussed in the course of study.

Those who are more interested in Arabic culture and language are in good hands in North African countries such as Egypt or Morocco. However, it should be noted that, as in almost all African countries, there are large quality differences between the individual universities. The Bachelor-Master system is not yet available everywhere. It is therefore important to inform yourself in advance of studying in Africa about the various universities and courses in the country of your choice.

Country Number of students per teacher in primary school Proportion of children starting primary school (per cent)
Algeria 24 (2017) 97.5 (2017)
Angola 50 (2015) 77.5 (2011)
Benin 44 (2017) 97.0 (2017)
Botswana 23 (2013) 89.0 (2014)
Burkina Faso 41 (2017) 76.4 (2017)
Burundi 50 (2017) 96.6 (2017)
central African Republic 83 (2016) 68.1 (2012)
Comoros 19 (2017) 79.8 (2017)
Djibouti 30 (2017) 55.1 (2017)
Egypt 24 (2017) 97.0 (2017)
Equatorial Guinea 23 (2015) 43.3 (2015)
Ivory Coast 42 (2017) 86.0 (2017)
Eritrea 39 (2017) 37.4 (2017)
Ethiopia 55 (2011) 85.4 (2015)
Gabon 25 (2011) 91.3 (1997)
Gambia 39 (2017) 77.6 (2017)
Ghana 27 (2017) 84.6 (2017)
Guinea 47 (2016) 76.8 (2016)
Guinea-Bissau 52 (2010) 70.9 (2010)
Cameroon 45 (2017) 95.2 (2017)
Cape Verde 21 (2017) 86.2 (2017)
Kenya 31 (2015) 81.8 (2012)
Congo-Brazzaville 44 (2012) 85.8 (2012)
Congo-Kinshasa 33 (2015) 36.8 (1999)
Lesotho 33 (2017) 80.9 (2017)
Liberia 27 (2016) 36.8 (2016)
Libya 17 (1983) 98.1 (1983)
Madagascar 41 (2016) 77.7 (2003)
Malawi 62 (2017) 96.3 (2009)
Mali 38 (2017) 61.2 (2017)
Morocco 28 (2017) 96.8 (2017)
Mauritania 36 (2016) 75.7 (2017)
Mauritius 18 (2017) 95.8 (2017)
Mozambique 52 (2017) 87.5 (2017)
Namibia 30 (2010) 97.0 (2017)
Niger 36 (2017) 65.4 (2017)
Nigeria 38 (2010) 64.1 (2010)
Rwanda 58 (2017) 93.9 (2017)
São Tomé & Príncipe 31 (2017) 96.1 (2017)
Senegal 33 (2017) 74.1 (2017)
Seychelles 14 (2016) 95.5 (2005)
Sierra Leone 39 (2017) 98.3 (2016)
Somalia 36 (2007)
Sudan 60.4 (2017)
Swaziland
South Africa 30 (2015) 84.3 (2015)
South Sudan 47 (2015) 32.1 (2015)
Tanzania 47 (2017) 79.9 (2017)
Chad 57 (2016) 74.2 (2016)
Togo 40 (2017) 90.0 (2017)
Tunisia 16 (2016) 98.6 (2013)
Uganda 43 (2017) 90.9 (2013)
Zambia 48 (2013) 84.1 (2017)
Zimbabwe 36 (2013) 84.8 (2013)

Climate

Africa is the only continent that reaches as far north of the equator as south (37 ° north latitude and 35 ° southern latitude), and it is this location that provides the main features of the climatic structure. The current climate types thus show an almost symmetrical distribution in the north-south, and in addition, almost the entire continent receives tropical climate. However, as Africa north of the equator has a much greater extent to the east-west than the strongly tapered southern part, the influence of the ocean and ocean currents becomes more prominent in the south than in the north, where continental tropical air masses dominate.

Based on the middle zone at the equator, Africa can be divided into pairs of similar climatic regions to the north and south respectively. A relatively narrow belt along the equator has tropical rainforest climate and reaches east to Lake Victoria but covers in the west almost the entire northern coastal zone of the Gulf of Guinea. The southwest monsoon here provides abundant rainfall for the entire area (1,500-2,500 mm per year) with two annual rainfall peaks. The temperature is high (annual average temperature 25–27 °C) and the annual amplitude only about 3 °C.

With increasing latitude, the rainfall decreases and falls mainly during a rainy period, which becomes shorter the further from the equator one comes. The climate type here is tropical savannah climate. It is the migration of tropical fronts during the year that conditions the rainfall distribution. In the northern area, the dry pass wind from the Sahara meets moist air masses brought in by southwest winds, with rain falling on the south side of the front during the high season. To the south, the savannah climate covers a belt across the continent. The rainfall here arises at the meeting between air masses from the Indian Ocean and the South Atlantic and forms a front that moves in an east-west direction.

At even further distances from the equator, dry tropical climates are taking place in both northern and southern Africa. It is partly a narrow belt of steppe climate, which forms the transition to the savannah climate, and partly the extremely dry tropical desert climate. By far the most widespread spread is this type of climate around the northern tropic, where it, with the Sahara as the dominant desert, encompasses the entire continent and extends into the Arabian Peninsula, in Iran and Pakistan. The temperature here reaches a maximum of above 35 °C in July. Dry tropical climates also exist around 20 ° south, but the desert climate is limited to a narrow area along the Atlantic coast. This is related to the cold Benguela stream and cold upwelling bottom water, which gives rise to a stable layer of air with low rainfall, coastal fog and low temperature (summer temperature: about 20 °C) as a result.

Africa reaches the far north and south into the subtropical zone, and here are narrow areas with so-called Mediterranean climate. This is characterized by precipitation and lower temperatures in winter (approx. 700 mm and +10 °C, respectively). In southern Africa, the warm Agulhas current causes the east coast to receive higher temperatures (22 °C in summer and 10-15 °C in winter), and onshore winds provide precipitation during the summer as well.

In eastern Africa, there are mountain climates, which are mainly conditioned by the divergent topography of the rift area. It is distinguished, among other things. of lower temperature, vertical temperature zoning and summer precipitation.