School and Education in Bosnia and Herzegovina

It is 9 years free and compulsory schooling in Bosnia and Herzegovina from the children is 7 years. The high school of 3-4 years is divided into vocational and a general field of study, which qualify for higher education.

There are four universities in the country: Sarajevo, Banja Luka, Mostar and Tuzla.

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Since the Civil War ended in 1995, the educational system has been rebuilt. Over 90% of children attend school, and illiteracy was estimated at 2.8% in 2000.

At a secret meeting in 1877, Russia transferred the right to occupy Bosnia-Herzegovina to the Austrians, who in turn guaranteed it to remain neutral in the impending Russian-Turkish war. Following the Turkish-Russian War of 1877-1878, the Congress in Berlin approved the wishes of the locals and Serbs, and transferred Bosnia-Herzegovina to Austria-Hungary. Bosnia and Herzegovina attempted to launch an armed uprising that forced Vienna to intervene with 200,000 soldiers in 1878.

The “Young Turks” uprising in 1908 solved the crisis of the Ottoman Empire. The new Turkish government proposed that Bosnia-Herzegovina be represented in the Istanbul parliament, which was accepted by the nationalists, who believed they had more opportunity to carry out their demands here, but Austria-Hungary sabotaged the process and annexed the two provinces in 1908 with tacit cheapening from the Russians. Vienna founded a provincial council, Sabor, without representation in Vienna or Budapest.

Bosnia and Herzegovina Country Flag

Bosnia and Herzegovina flag source: Countryaah.com

The constitution, introduced in 1910, sought to resolve the social and religious tensions by introducing three electoral colleges: for the Orthodox, for the Catholics and for the Muslims, each with a predetermined number of members in the Sabor Council.

The influence of the Mlada Bosna movement, “Young Bosnia”, and of other nationalist and social democratic groups, forced the authorities to abolish Sabor in Bosnia and dissolve several Serbian enclaves. The Austrian heir, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, and his wife, the Duchess of Hohenberg, were murdered in June 1914 in Sarajevo by a Bosnian-Serbian student. Austria declared war on Serbia, and it was the beginning of the first World War.

Expatriates founded in Peru in 1915 The Yugoslav Committee – Yugoslavs means Southern Slavs – which launched a vigorous campaign in favor of independence and a union of Yugoslavs. On December 1 of that year, the Serbian, Croatian and Slavic kingdoms, which included Bosnia and Herzegovina, were proclaimed. In 1919, the Yugoslav Communist Party was formed, which obtained 14% of parliamentary seats, which was banned in 1920. The country was renamed the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929, following a coup that marked the start of persecution campaigns against Communists, trade unionists and opponents of Serbian supremacy.

Yugoslavia was occupied by the Nazis in 1941, and the Communists, led by Tito, initiated, with the assistance of the Allies, the resistance struggle. At the end of the war, the country was united as a Federal Republic, one of which was Bosnia-Herzegovina.

With this federal form, in conjunction with Tito’s leadership, it managed to achieve half a century of inner peace. The development plans prioritized the most disadvantaged provinces and the integration of the various community groups. After Tito’s death in 1980, the leadership was transferred to a college, with representation from all the republics, and a one-year presidential post that went on a lap between them. It turned out that this new regime, rather than dampening rivalry between the Federal Republics, helped to strengthen it.