Breeding. – Livestock farming is widely practiced in almost all regions of Brazil, mostly with backward methods. The livestock patrimony, according to the 1940 census, was made up of 34.4 million cattle; 6.8 million horses (4.7 horses, 2.1 million donkeys and mules); 16.8 million pigs; 9.3 million sheep and 6.5 million goats. Meat production is relatively low compared to the quantity of livestock; internal consumption varies from 25 to 30 kg. per year per resident. The production of wool, concentrated in Rio Grande do Sul, reaches about 15,000 t. yearly. The export of hides and skins is important: before the war it was around 60,000 tons. yearly; after a period of forced reduction, it rose to 36,000 t. in 1946 and 74,000 in 1947.
According to smber, fishing is underdeveloped, despite the enormous coastline; it is estimated that the product does not exceed 100,000 t. yearly.
Mineral products (VII, p. 733). – The Brazil is rich in mineral deposits, still little exploited, due to a lack of technical and financial means, and often of communications or means of transport. The production of hard coal. of rather poor quality, it was increased, to replace importation made difficult by the war, from about 1 million tons, in 1939, to 2 million, in 1943; it then remained around this level until 1947. The producing states are: Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catharina and Paraná. The coal of Santa Catharina is used in the blast furnaces of Volta Redonda, of the recently launched semi-state steel company, which, in 1947, produced 176,000 tons. of cast iron, 145,000 t. of steel and 90,000 t. of laminates. Total steel production in 1947 rose to 481,000 t. of cast iron, 388,000 t. of steel and 316,000 t. of laminates: triple quantities of those of 1939, but insufficient for internal consumption.
The reserves of high-content iron ores are enormous (Minas Gerais), but little exploited; those of manganese are also quite important; the annual export of each of the two types of minerals is around 150-200,000 tons. with higher peaks in the war period. A modest production of aluminum, made from excellent bauxites (Poços de Caldas), was started in the states of Minas Gerais and São Paulo. The largest gold mine (Morro Velho; state of Minas Gerais) produces between 4,500 and 5,000 kg. gold per year. There are deposits of quartz and mica (intensively exploited during the war), of beryl, titanium, graphite, chromium, nickel, zirconium, tin, wolfram, etc. The production of precious and semiprecious stones (aquamarines, etc.) is considerable; diamonds for industrial use are exported (about 50 kg. year, during the period 1940-44). There are cement factories which produced 914,000 tons in 1947. of cement; Furthermore s ‘ they imported in the period 1945-47, about 300,000 t. concrete annuals. In all states there are brick and lime factories.
Industries. – After the food industries, the textile industries are the most important group: first among them is the cotton industry (420 factories, including spinning mills and weaving mills, with capital over 6 billion cruzeiros, and with 300,000 workers), concentrated in the state of Sao Paulo (32% of looms and 36% of spindles), in the Federal District and in Minas Gerais (30% of looms and spindles). Overall, it has 3.1 million spindles and approximately 95,000 looms. The production of yarns, in the period 1942-46, was 150,000 tons. per year, and that of fabrics of 1.1 to 1.2 billion meters per year.
Qualitatively, production has also progressed and there has been a strong export of fabrics, especially to the countries of South America and Africa, during the period 1942-45 (about 25,000 tons per year). In 1947 the export was 16,700 tons, for a value of about 1,250 million cruzeiros. The export of yarns amounted to 4,500 tons. per year in 1942-45, and dropped to less than 800 t. in 1946 and less than 500 in 1947.
Rayon production, still very small in 1930 (272 t.), Had already risen to 5,270 t. in 1938 and then also reached 11,300 t. in 1946 (of which 750 of jib), and 12,000 t. in 1947. The annual production of rayon fabrics is about 100 million meters. The wool industry has developed a lot (San Paolo, Rio Grande do Sul) and the production of fabrics (7-8 million meters in the pre-war period) has been increased to 13-14 million in recent years; this industry has 86 spinning mills and weaving mills (120,000 spindles, of which 65% for carded wool) and 3,500 looms. The jute industry is also noteworthy (33 factories, 55,000 spindles, prod.: 60 million bags).
Among the other transforming industries, the furniture industry must be mentioned; mechanical, metallurgical and electrotechnical constructions; of railway material; tanneries and shoe factories; chemical and pharmaceutical; paper, ceramics; glassworks; dyes and varnishes; of rubber and plastic artifacts, etc. The value of industrial production is estimated (1948) at 40 billion cruzeiros; the total number of factories is about 50,000, with about 1.5 million workers.