School and Education in Canada


Education is a concern for the provinces, so there is no uniform school system in the country. Each province has characteristics in, among other things, finance, teaching language, school forms and degrees. The design is based on historical and cultural factors. The school languages ​​are English and French, and the scope of teaching in the minority language varies with the size of the linguistic minority group in the municipality.

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The children start elementary school at the age of 6 or 7 and the compulsory school term ends when they are 16 years old. The secondary school, whose first part belongs to the compulsory school, has both academically oriented and vocational preparation programs. The majority of pupils continue in school until the age of 18. Each province has a Ministry of Education with a Minister of Education, sometimes two ministers, one for school and one for college issues. Local school boards are responsible for buildings, teachers and teaching materials. The school is largely financed by tax credits.

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There are some 80 universities and colleges. The University of Toronto, Ontario, and McGill University in Montreal, Quebec, are two of the oldest and most famous. Traditionally, universities are very independent; the federal government pays some of their costs, while the state accounts for most of the funding. Other funds will include from student fees.

It is estimated that one in four Canadians participate in some form of education in one way or another. The total cost of education is about 7% of Canada’s GDP.

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1993 Jean Chrétien and the Liberals take over the government

In June of that year, Parliament – with only a 10-vote majority – ratified the NAFTA agreement. Two months later, the brand new prime minister traveled around the country on election campaigns to gather support for the adoption of a savings package to reduce the state’s budget deficit. Her liberal counterpart, the liberal Jean Chrétien, on the other hand, promised to give job creation top priority. In the October 93 parliamentary elections, the Liberals won a crushing victory over the Conservatives, reducing the number of seats in the House of Commons from 155 to 2. The Liberal Party gained 178 seats against 79 previously. The separatist Bloque Quebecois gained 54 seats and the center-right Reformist Party gained 52 seats. Both parties were able to make significant progress. The election result was the most serious defeat for a government party in Canada’s 126-year history.

The new Prime Minister, Jean Chrétien, took office on November 4, 1993. The following month, former Prime Minister Kim Campbell resigned as President of the Conservative Party.

The government’s main challenges in 1994-95 were the reduction of public debt and government spending, rising unemployment reaching over 10% and the separatist tendencies in Quebec. In May 1994, inflation fell for the first time in 40 years.

1995 New attempt at independence in Quebec

The possibility of detachment of Quebec appeared again in 1994 prompted by Partì Quebecois (PQ). Probably Prime Minister Chrétien’s popularity had risen by 13% since the election in 93, but in Quebec it was PQ that won. The new head of local government, Jacques Parizeau, pledged to do everything possible to make Quebec an independent state.

The NAFTA agreement entered into force on January 1, 1994, and the geopolitical situation thus created meant that the other countries too closely followed developments in Quebec, despite PQ promising that a possible new state would comply with the obligations that Canada had concluded. On October 30, 1995 came the proposal for independence for a referendum in Quebec, where it was rejected by 50.6% of the vote.

The threat of secession on Quebec’s side was diminished in 1996 despite the high support that the separatists had won. The federal government transferred a number of powers to the states in an effort to curb nationalist currents. Lucien Bouchard succeeded Parizeau as leader of the PQ and the state government of Quebec after Parizeau resigned following the election defeat.

Despite the growth of the Canadian economy in 1996, unemployment also grew. Incidentally, the year was marked by conflict with the United States over a number of Canadian companies’ trade with Cuba.

In June 1997, Chrétien won the parliamentary elections with 155 out of 301 seats, followed by the Reformist Party with 60 seats, PQ with 44, the new Democratic Party with 21 and the Conservatives with 20. An independent group got a single seat. Marilyn Trauholme became new governor of New Brunswick. Following pressure from the separatists, in March 1998, the government banned the display of the Canadian flag in the lower house.

In 1998, the Supreme Court ruled that Quebec would not be able to opt out of the federation without the central government’s approval. The Prime Minister himself who was born in Quebec and fiercely opposed to the province’s detachment declared that the decision confirmed the federal government’s main argument – that Quebec does not have the right to unilaterally declare itself independent in Canadian law.

In 1999, a survey by the David Suzuki Foundation established that Canada has the world’s largest consumption of oil and gas per capita. population and that 16,000 people die annually as a result of air pollution. The study also pointed to Canada being the world’s largest producer of greenhouse gases per year. resident – the gases that cause global warming of the atmosphere.

After 50 years of central government, the Inuit in 1999 finally gained control of 20% of Canadian territory when the Nunavut territory was formed in Canada’s northwest. Since Nunavut does not have infrastructure that would allow the territory’s mineral resources to be mined, the 25,000 Inuit in areas continue to be dependent on subsidies and social assistance from the Canadian state.

The Jantzi Social Index came into force in 2000 and includes 60 of the country’s largest companies selected based on their respect for the environment and social conditions. The index can be used by those investors who do not want their funds invested in the arms industry or in companies that benefit from child labor. The index also excludes companies in nuclear power and tobacco. However, it holds companies in gaming and alcohol.

Prime Minister Chrétien faced a wave of criticism and therefore – against his own party’s position – accelerated the parliamentary elections to November 2000. The election gave him not only an absolute majority in Congress, but also an increase of 17 seats. His liberal party also advanced in Quebec, thus helping to weaken separatists. The explanation for the electoral victory was Canada’s strong economic situation in particular. According to UN estimates, Canada has the highest living standards in the world.