Schooling is officially compulsory between the ages of 6 and 12, but the realization has been made more difficult due to a lack of schools and teachers, civil war and competition from Koran schools. In 2003, 61% of children of current age were estimated to start primary school. The corresponding proportion was 11% for the upper secondary school. The proportion was higher in the southern parts of the country than in the north. At all levels, the proportion of girls is clearly lower than the proportion of boys.
During the 1980s, the entire education system was adapted to local conditions, and vocational education at the upper secondary level was strengthened (education in technology, administration, pedagogy, post and telecommunications, health care and agriculture). Language of instruction is consistently French and Arabic. A upper secondary education of 4 + 3 years gives access to universities, technical colleges and teachers’ colleges. The country’s only university is in the capital N’Djamena.
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According to UNESCO, in 2009, literacy among the population over 15 years was 34% (44% for men and 23% for women). In the same year, 13% of government spending went to the education sector.
Youssouf Saleh Abbas was inducted into the post of prime minister in April 2008 after Déby removed Delwa Kassiré Koumakoye from the post. Koumakoye was apparently removed from the post because he had disagreed with the agreement reached between government and opposition in September 2007. Another reason apparently was that he had not averted the rebellion against N’Djamena. Abbas, on the other hand, was from the eastern part of the country, which should give him a better condition for negotiating with the rebels. Part of the opposition saw the replacement of the Prime Minister as a positive sign, while others regarded it as irrelevant since the real problem was Déby.
In January 2010, Chad requested the UN Security Council to withdraw the peacekeeping force, MINURCAT. The posting did not, in the Government’s opinion, produce the desired results. In May, Chad put renewed pressure on the Security Council, which decided to withdraw the force by 1 January. 31th December. Already on January 15, Chad and Sudan had signed an agreement to normalize the otherwise tense relationship between the two countries. They should no longer allow armed groups from the other country to reside in their territory. In March, the two countries established a joint border patrol to monitor smugglers and armed groups. In July, Sudanese President Omar Al-Bashir visited N’Djamena for negotiations for the first time in many years – despite an international arrest warrant by the ICC.
Emmanuel Nadingar was inducted into the post of prime minister in March 2010 after Déby removed Saleh Abbas. Abbas had not attended government meetings since December, and there were supposed to be political differences between the president and the prime minister.
The humanitarian situation in the country continued to be disastrous. About 68,000 refugees from the Central African Republic lived in camps in the southern part of the country; 262,000 Darfur refugees lived in 12 camps in the eastern part of the country; and 180,000 of Chad’s own residents were on the run internally. Among other things. due to floods and ethnic conflicts.
Chad flag source: Countryaah.com
In 2011, Déby was elected to a new presidential term.
In July 2012, the ICC ordered Senegal to “without hesitation” bring Hissène Habré to trial or extradite him to international prosecution. After many years of delaying the process, the new Senegal government, led by Macky Sall, in August entered into an agreement with the AU to set up a special court with judges appointed by the AU to handle Habré’s case. In June 2013, Habré was arrested in Senegal and the following month before the court and charged with crimes against humanity, torture and war crimes. The court expected the case to start in early 2015.