In ancient Czechoslovakia, science and education have a long tradition, mainly in Bohemia and Moravia; In Prague, Karl IV founded a university (the famous Charles University, founded in 1348, the oldest in Central Europe). After previously being taken care of by the church, the education system was subordinated to the state administration from the 18th century. The Czech became the language of instruction in the Bohemia-Moravia in the 19th century, and in 1868 the Technical University of Prague was divided into a Czech-speaking and a German-speaking unit.
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Until the end of the Second World War, the Czech Republic largely retained the Austro-Hungarian school system. In 1944, all schools were nationalized, and in 1948 the entire school system was adapted to Soviet designs, which meant a nine-year unit school followed by middle school and high school and vocational school. In 1984, they switched to ten-year compulsory schooling. The minorities (Hungarians, Poles and Ukrainians) were then also entitled to education in the mother tongue.
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After the fall of communism, the school duty has been shortened to nine years. Secondary schools offer 4-8-year programs and in cases where upper secondary education is longer than four years, compulsory schooling is shortened by the corresponding number of years. During the 1990s, a large number of private (including church) chartered schools emerged, especially high schools. Higher education in the Czech Republic is free of charge. There are 26 state universities and colleges as well as a large number of private alternatives.
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The center of scientific research is, above all, the Czech Academy of Sciences in Prague.
In the early 13th century, the church was separated from the state and the nobility demanded greater influence on the political divide. At the same time, the population increased significantly due to Germanic immigration which, thanks to the founding of new cities and mining, developed into a class of traders.
During the Przemysl dynasty, until 1306, Bohemia controlled parts of Austria and the Alpine region and “shared” the king with Poland. As a consequence of the heyday of Luxembourg, which occurred around 1310, Bohemia and the Vatican were merged when Charles the First was declared Emperor. Prague, which gained the status of capital, then experienced its heyday.
The Reformation grew in strength in the 14th century and became radicalized under the leadership of Father Juan Hus from the Chapel of Bethlehem to Prague. House wanted in the band by the Pope was convicted of heresy and rebellion by the council in Constanza and died at the stake in 1415 after refusing to repent.
The indignation over Hus’s death gave rise to the formation of the Hussian movement in Bohemia and Moravia. The Germans, however, remained loyal to Rome; To the religious disagreements was now added the ethnic issue, which was amplified by the political conflict. The Holy Empire, associated with the Germanic princes, led several campaigns against Bohemia, but was defeated by the Hussists.
The religious divide prevented a union between Bohemia and its former possessions for a number of years. Vladislav II ruled Bohemia from 1471, but Moravia, Silesia and Lusacia belonged to Mathias of Hungary. Only after Mathias’ death in 1490, Vladislav was proclaimed king of Hungary and in this way a reunion was achieved.
Louis ‘death of the 2 in 1526 paved the way for the Habsburg dynasty, and Louis’ brother-in-law, Ferdinand the 1st, sat down on the throne. Austria’s triumph in the conflict with the Schmalkaldian Protestant Society in 1547, allowed Ferdinand to inherit the throne of Bohemia and its associated states.
The government of the Austrian royal house supported the counter-reform throughout the region, including Slovakia, for the Habsburgs maintained their grip on them when Hungary was invaded by the Turks in 1526.
Rudolf the 2nd (1576-1612) moved the Empire’s headquarters to Prague and the city once again became one of the most important political and cultural centers on the continent. Rudolf’s Catholic upbringing enabled his fellow believers to attain the highest positions in the kingdom’s hierarchy, but at the same time it was the beginning of a rebellion, the measure of the Reformed population and the king deposed in 1611.
After a stormy period, Ferdinand defeated the 2nd of Estonia, with the support of Maximillian the 1st of Bavaria, the Protestants and they were subject to a hard-fought regime. German became the official language of Czech and only Catholicism was allowed.
The Moravians, just like Bohemia, participated in the battle against the Habsburgs but suffered less from the consequences of the religious and civil strife. The religious tolerance in Moravia gave way to a flourishing of Protestants in the country, which remained an area separate from the Austrian royal house until 1848.
Despite the German supremacy and the ban on political activities, the Czechs retained their ethnic identity, language and culture. Something similar had taken place in the Hungarian counties where Slovakians lived. It provided the basis for the renaissance of nationalism in the early 19th century and strengthened the ties between the two population groups.
Inspired by the revolutionary wave that swept across Europe in 1848, Czechs and Slovaks, along with German Republicans, participated in the attempt to put an end to the Empire. The empire was divided in 1867 into two: Austria, where the German majority ruled Czechs, Poles and other population groups, and Hungary, where Hungarians suppressed the Slovakians.
The fall of the Austro-Hungarian Empire during World War I led to the recognition of the Republic of Czechoslovakia. The new nation, whose boundary had been drawn in 1919 by the victors after the World War, had incorporated parts of Poland, Hungary and Sudeterland, where 3 million Germans lived – here lay the seed for future conflicts.
A national council was assigned by the Czech and Slovak leaders the task of drafting a new constitution. The council chose to propose a parliamentary system in which the president and his cabinet were accountable to two legislative assemblies and for the first time introduced the right to vote and suffrage for women.