Electrical Lighting: LED, Low Consumption Lamps

Lighting accounts for 12.8% of the average electricity consumption in the category of so-called specific uses.

Lighting accounts for 12.8% of the average electricity consumption in the category of so-called specific uses. Consumption for the cold is at the top (23.3%), followed by audiovisual (20%), washing (14.5%), computing (14.5%) (CEREN 2008 figures).

How To Choose Your Lamp?

To make the right choice, you must take into account several elements:

The Luminous Flux Of The Lamp (
expressed in lumens) With the low consumption lamps, the electric power does not really matter anymore. It is now necessary to look at the measurement in lumen of the lamp which makes it possible to describe the quantity of light scattered

Here Are The Watts-Lumens Equivalents:

100 W = 1300-1530 lumens

75 W = 920-1060 lumens

60 W = 700-810 lumens

40 W = 410-470 lumens

25 W = 220-250 lumens.

The Electrical Power (Expressed In Watts)
The choice of the electrical power of the lamp depends on the use to be made of it and the type of lamp chosen . For example, to watch TV, it could be between 40 and 60 watts for a conventional lamp, 20 and 35 watts for a halogen lamp, 5 and 11 watts for a compact fluo and between 3 and 4 watts for an LED. On the other hand, to read or work, the power must be between 75 and 100 W for a conventional lamp, 60 and 100 W for a halogen lamp, 15 W for a compact fluo and between 6 and 9 W for an LED.

Lifetime (Expressed In Hours)
The lifetime of a lamp is measured in hours. The longer the lifetime, the less need to replace it quickly and invest again in a new lamp.

For information, the service life is between 1000 hours for conventional incandescent lamps and 15,000 hours for the most efficient fluorescent lamps and LED lamps. A small note however, the promises of the manufacturers are not always kept.

It should be noted that the number of switch-on / switch-offs greatly affects the lifetime of AMLs.

The Color Temperature Or The Color Of The Light,
expressed in kelvin The color temperature can be defined as the apparent color of a light source. It varies from red-orange to the flame of a candle or the setting sun to a bluish hue for a camera flash.

It is measured in kelvins (K) , on a scale ranging from hot red (1 000 K) to cold blue (20 000 K).

Incandescent lamps always provide the same color, called “warm white”, while compact fluorescent lamps and LEDs allow for a more diversified color choice. With 2,700 kelvin, you can illuminate a relaxation area, over 4,000 kelvin (cold white), the lighting will suit a workspace.

For lamps, the color ranges are as follows:

Between 2,700 and 3,200 K, one speaks of warm light

At over 5,300 K, one enters the cold light

At 6,400 K, one is in the very cold light, with the name “daylight”.

Lighting Time

This is the time in seconds the lamp takes to reach 60% of the luminous flux indicated on the packaging. The ignition can be done almost instantaneously or require almost a minute.

This information concerns mainly compact fluorescent lamps which have a longer ignition time than other technologies.

The Number Of Ignition Cycles (Number Of Times The Lamp Can Be Switched On And Off)
This information is important, especially for compact fluorescent lamps. Indeed some of them do not support the ignition repeatedly. These lamps should therefore not be installed in rooms where they will often be switched off or on, such as in toilets or corridors equipped with motion detectors. There are, however, lamps for which this criterion does not matter (example of incandescent halogen lamps). The information provided corresponds to a number of guaranteed ignition cycles.

The Quantity Of Mercury (
indicated in mg) The quantity of mercury contained in the lamp must be indicated on its packaging. Compact fluorescent lamps contain mercury, contrary to LEDs.

The Operating Temperature
The temperature range in which the lamp can operate is expressed in degrees. In general, compact fluorescent lamps are more temperature sensitive than halogen incandescent lamps or LEDs. This criterion must be taken into account for luminaires to be installed outside. Frost resistant lamps (for winter) should be installed, otherwise the light output may be degraded.

Recycling Instructions
Used lamps can not be mixed with ordinary garbage (a bin marked with a cross). Whatever the type of lamp, it must be recycled either from the distributor or from a waste collection service. Recovery is free and compulsory.

What Are The Advantages And Disadvantages Of Each Lamp?

Halogen Lamps:

Most :

Quality of lighting offered (color rendering approaching natural color)

Price of the lamp.

The Lessers :

Less economical than low-consumption lamps

Caution: Do not touch the lamp with your fingers, as this will weaken the envelope and degrade its performance.

Low Consumption Lamps:

Most :

Energetic efficiency

Lifetime

Price of the lamp.

The Lessers :

Waste classified as hazardous, must undergo specific recycling

Not suitable for outdoor use (if negative temperature)

Excessive switching on and off reduce their life. In addition, repetitive ignition reduces the energy efficiency of the lamp (ignition power is the most important). Do not install this type of lamp in intermittent rooms (eg in corridors or toilets)

Color rendering less good than for halogen lamps (color can be pale, pale)

Sensation of eye discomfort for some people (flicker effect due to frequency)

Majority of lamps incompatible with power inverters. Also incompatible with luminaires originally designed for incandescent lamps

High manufacturing and sales prices

Electromagnetic field precaution: ADEME invites users to maintain a distance of 30 cm with the lamp during extended use (eg desk lamp or bedside lamp).

LEDs:

Most

Lifetime

Impact resistance

Instant ignition

Insensitive to repeated ignition

Insensitive to frost.

The Lessers :

High price

Low light output, poorly adapted to high power lighting

Emission of blue light which can be harmful to the eye and risk of glare (ANSES report).

Comparison Of The Different Lamp Types:

Analysis Of Annual Operating Costs (€ And Kwh) Between Different Technologies:

Assumptions: 3 hours of operation per day (cost of basic kWh: 0.1329 € – GDF SUEZ regulated rate August 2013) – 8 lamps in a fireplace

This table shows that in just two years, the replacement of all its incandescent lamps with low consumption lamps is profitable. In two years, the replacement of an AML by an LED does not necessarily have an economic interest with current prices.

 

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