School and Education in Europe

Studying in Europe: study opportunities

Study in Europe? Sure, of course! The continent is still at the top of the priority list for German students. This is also due to the relatively short distances. Almost all European countries now have cheap flight or train connections. In contrast to studying overseas, the travel expenses incurred to study in Europe are manageable. It is also possible to pay a visit to your home country during the semester break.

The organizational effort for studying in Europe is low : a visa is not required for German citizens in any country. In some countries, a residence permit is only required if international students want to stay there for longer than three months.

Due to the social security agreement within the EEA countries and Switzerland, you will continue to receive the same benefits as legally insured in the host country. Nevertheless, it can do no harm to find out in advance whether it makes sense to take out additional foreign health insurance.

University landscape in Europe

Not only the organizational advantages, but also the European school landscape itself speaks for choosing to study in Europe. According to Countryaah, countries such as Great Britain, the Netherlands or the Czech Republic have traditional universities and Denmark, Sweden and Finland also have a multi- award-winning education system. In other European countries, the level of study is also high and the universities offer first-class study programs.

The study system has been converted to Bachelor, Master and PhD degrees almost everywhere. This means that the academic achievements achieved while studying in Europe can generally be credited towards studying in Germany without any problems. If you are not interested in a complete study in Europe, you can also do a semester abroad in Europe.

In European countries, classes are usually held in the national language, which contributes significantly to improving foreign language skills. In some Eastern European countries, the universities also offer courses in German or English. The study programs in Hungary, the Czech Republic and Slovakia are particularly popular with German medical students. Admission is not dependent on the school leaving certificate, but takes place via an entrance examination. In this way, waiting times of several years in Germany can be avoided.

Costs and funding of studying in Europe

Studying in Europe is not possible for free. However, tuition fees in most European countries are lower than on other continents. In some countries like Denmark, studying at state universities is even free of charge for EU citizens. According to Abbreviationfinder, EU stands for European Union.

There are also many possibilities for financial support. The BAföG abroad is particularly noteworthy. This supports students with up to EUR 4,600 in grants for tuition and other grants for health insurance and travel expenses. In contrast to studying in countries such as the USA, Australia or New Zealand, students receive this state funding even for complete Bachelor and Master courses.

A study or education loan could be an option for those who are not entitled to a BAföG abroad and who are not eligible for a scholarship.

Country Number of students per teacher in primary school Proportion of children starting primary school (per cent)
Albania 18 (2017) 96.5 (2017)
Andorra 11 (2017)
Armenia 19 (2007) 92.0 (2017)
Azerbaijan 15 (2017) 93.7 (2017)
Belgium 11 (2016) 98.3 (2016)
Bosnia and Herzegovina 17 (2017)
Bulgaria 18 (2016) 91.2 (2016)
Cyprus 12 (2015) 97.4 (2015)
Denmark 11 (2014) 98.7 (2016)
Estonia 11 (2016) 93.5 (2016)
Finland 13 (2016) 99.1 (2016)
France 18 (2013) 98.6 (2016)
Georgia 9 (2017) 97.9 (2017)
Greece 9 (2016) 92.9 (2016)
Ireland 16 (2012) 95.9 (2016)
Iceland 10 (2015) 99.5 (2016)
Italy 11 (2016) 96.9 (2016)
Kosovo
Croatia 14 (2016) 87.5 (2016)
Latvia 11 (2016) 96.3 (2017)
Liechtenstein 8 (2016) 92.1 (2016)
Lithuania 13 (2016) 98.3 (2016)
Luxembourg 8 (2016) 95.5 (2016)
Northern Macedonia 14 (2015)
Malta 13 (2016) 97.6 (2016)
Moldova 18 (2017) 86.5 (2017)
Monaco 10 (2017)
Montenegro 95.8 (2017)
Netherlands 12 (2016) 97.3 (2016)
Norway 9 (2016) 99.9 (2017)
Poland 11 (2016) 95.0 (2016)
Portugal 13 (2016) 96.3 (2016)
Romania 19 (2016) 86.6 (2016)
Russia 21 (2016) 97.0 (2016)
San Marino 6 (2012) 92.7 (2012)
Switzerland 10 (2016) 93.5 (2016)
Serbia 14 (2017) 95.2 (2017)
Slovakia 15 (2015)
Slovenia 14 (2016) 97.7 (2016)
Spain 13 (2016) 98.5 (2016)
UK 15 (2016) 99.7 (2016)
Sweden 12 (2016) 99.4 (2016)
Czech Republic 19 (2013)
Turkey 18 (2015) 94.3 (2016)
Germany 12 (2016) 98.8 (2016)
Ukraine 13 (2017) 92.4 (2014)
Hungary 11 (2016) 91.4 (2016)
Vatican City State
Belarus (Belarus) 19 (2017) 95.7 (2017)
Austria 10 (2016) 94.3 (1989)

European education

In modern times, European education systems have evolved primarily on the basis of educational ideas that are based on the human vision of the Enlightenment and the need for the qualification of the workforce. In addition, the state government has tried everywhere to create loyal citizens through the school’s activities.

Today, all European countries give high priority to the education system on both ideological and economic grounds. In the 1950s and 1960s, public spending on education in both Eastern and Western Europe increased by more than 10% per year, ie. with more than twice the growth in gross domestic product. Many countries extended the period of compulsory education and the number of pupils in Europe’s primary schools increased by 30% over the same period.

School or teaching obligations have been introduced in all European countries, although not fully implemented everywhere. As a rule, it covers an 8-10 year period, in the UK however 11 years.

Developments after World War II. This evolution in European education can be characterized by the words expansion, democratization and quality. The expansion coincided with economic growth in the 1960s, while the demand for democratization was already raised in the years immediately following World War II; Democratization, however, did not really start until a few years later, economic growth created the conditions for it. The link between economic growth, expansion and democratization of education was the subject of much attention by politicians, administrators and researchers throughout Europe in the 1970s. The reforms during that period were therefore mainly structural reforms aimed at creating educational unity and coherence.

With the economic downturn and the consequent sharp rise in unemployment, which began after the oil crisis in the mid-1970s, attention was paid to better utilization of resources, which questioned the structure and content of education systems, and demanded political control and quality control., not least under the influence of the US report A Nation at Risk(1983). The quality requirement, which in Europe was sought to be met through increasing decentralization of education, for example as regards educational institutions’ competing activities, was further reinforced by the fact that, within the same period, Europe increasingly saw itself involved in economic and technological competition with Asia and the US. The reforms during that period were aimed more at the content, norms and values of education than with the structure.

More education for more. The expansion of education has taken place at all stages of the national education systems. The open and compulsory compulsory school has, during the entire period, brought increased pressure on the secondary steps, ie. ca. 11th-18th year. For women, the growth in the search has even been greater than for men, although there is a big difference between the types of education chosen by the students. women and men, especially in vocational education.

In higher education, expansion has resulted in strong growth in the number of universities and other higher education institutions as well as in new types of institutions such as the so-called open universities. At the same time, the demand for change and flexibility in the adult population throughout Europe has increased the interest in adult education, cf. a term such as life-long education, a concept originating in the English education situation in the 1960s.

International cooperation

An important feature of post-war development is the establishment of international cooperation on education under the auspices of UNESCO, the Council of Europe and the OECD. In recent years, however, cooperation within the EU has been of the greatest importance to the member states. Under the Treaty of Rome, this cooperation initially only included vocational training, but it was later expanded to include higher education. From the late 1970s a number of exchange programs such as ERASMUS, COMENIUS, LINGUA were developed and TEMPUS. And with Articles 126 and 127 of the Maastricht Treaty, so far, the most far-reaching legal basis for increased cooperation in education has been provided, though without any form of harmonization.