Geography and Climate of Cyprus

According to abbreviationfinder, Cyprus, officially known as the Republic of Cyprus, is an island nation located in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. It is the third-largest island in the Mediterranean and is situated at the crossroads of Europe, Asia, and Africa. The geography of Cyprus is defined by its unique position, diverse landscapes, and rich history.

Location and Size:

Cyprus is located in the northeastern part of the Mediterranean Sea, approximately 75 kilometers (47 miles) south of Turkey and 105 kilometers (65 miles) west of the coast of Syria. It covers an area of around 9,251 square kilometers (3,572 square miles), making it the third-largest island in the Mediterranean after Sicily and Sardinia.

Physical Features:

Cyprus is characterized by a varied and picturesque landscape that includes mountains, plains, and coastline:

  1. Troodos Mountains: The Troodos Mountains, located in the central part of the island, are the dominant mountain range in Cyprus. Mount Olympus, the highest peak on the island, reaches an elevation of 1,952 meters (6,404 feet). These mountains are known for their rugged terrain, dense forests, and traditional villages. The Troodos Mountains are also rich in minerals, including copper, which has played a significant role in Cyprus’s history.
  2. Kyrenia Range: In the northern part of Cyprus, the Kyrenia Range runs parallel to the coastline. These mountains are not as high as the Troodos Mountains but still offer stunning views of the Mediterranean. The region is known for the picturesque town of Kyrenia and its historical castle.
  3. Mesaoria Plain: The central plain, known as the Mesaoria Plain, lies between the Troodos Mountains and the Kyrenia Range. This fertile area is essential for agriculture and includes fields of wheat, citrus groves, and vineyards.
  4. Coastline: Cyprus boasts a coastline that stretches for approximately 648 kilometers (402 miles). The island’s coastal areas feature sandy beaches, rocky cliffs, and numerous coves and bays. The Mediterranean Sea surrounds Cyprus, offering opportunities for fishing, tourism, and maritime trade.


According to necessaryhome, Cyprus has a Mediterranean climate, characterized by hot, dry summers and mild, wet winters. The island experiences more than 300 days of sunshine each year, making it a popular destination for sun-seeking tourists. The climate can be divided into three main seasons:

  1. Summer (June to August): Summers in Cyprus are hot and dry, with temperatures often exceeding 30°C (86°F) and occasionally reaching into the 40s°C (100s°F). This is the peak tourist season, with visitors flocking to the island for its sunny weather and beautiful beaches.
  2. Autumn (September to November): Autumn is characterized by milder temperatures and decreasing rainfall. It’s an excellent time for outdoor activities and exploring the island’s natural beauty.
  3. Winter (December to February): Winters in Cyprus are mild and relatively wet, with temperatures averaging around 10-15°C (50-59°F). Snowfall is rare in the coastal areas but can occur in the mountains.

Water Resources:

Cyprus faces water scarcity issues due to its limited freshwater resources. The island relies heavily on dams and reservoirs to capture and store rainwater. Additionally, desalination plants are used to convert seawater into freshwater for drinking and irrigation. The scarcity of water resources has been a significant challenge for Cyprus, affecting agriculture and daily life.

Historical Significance:

The geography of Cyprus has played a vital role in its history. The island’s strategic location has made it a coveted territory for various civilizations throughout the centuries, including the Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Crusaders, and Ottomans. In 1974, Cyprus was divided into the Republic of Cyprus in the south and the self-declared Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus in the north after a conflict between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots. This division continues to be a significant geopolitical issue in the region.

In conclusion, Cyprus’s geography is defined by its central Mediterranean location, diverse landscapes, and unique position at the crossroads of Europe, Asia, and Africa. Its mountains, plains, and coastline contribute to a rich natural environment, while its climate and water resources have shaped the island’s history, culture, and way of life.

Climate in Cyprus

Cyprus, the easternmost island in the Mediterranean Sea, enjoys a Mediterranean climate characterized by long, hot, dry summers and mild, wet winters. The island’s climate is a significant factor in shaping its landscapes, agriculture, and tourism, making it a sought-after destination for travelers looking to experience the beauty of the Mediterranean.

Mediterranean Climate:

Cyprus falls under the classification of a Mediterranean climate, known as the “Csa” climate in the Köppen climate classification system. This climate type is characterized by distinct seasons, with hot, dry summers and mild, wet winters. The Mediterranean Sea plays a crucial role in moderating the climate, helping maintain relatively stable temperatures throughout the year.

Seasonal Variation:

  1. Summer (June to August): Summers in Cyprus are the most prominent and are known for their scorching heat. The season begins in June and lasts through August, with temperatures often soaring above 30°C (86°F) and frequently reaching into the 40s°C (100s°F). This is the peak tourist season, attracting sunseekers to the island’s beautiful beaches and coastal resorts.
  2. Autumn (September to November): Autumn is marked by gradually decreasing temperatures and a shift toward more moderate and pleasant weather. During this season, temperatures range from 20°C to 30°C (68°F to 86°F), making it an ideal time for outdoor activities and exploring the island’s cultural and natural attractions.
  3. Winter (December to February): Winters in Cyprus are mild and relatively wet. While the coastal areas remain pleasant with temperatures averaging around 10-15°C (50-59°F), the Troodos Mountains in the interior experience colder temperatures and occasionally receive snowfall. Snowfall is relatively rare in the coastal regions but can occur on occasion.
  4. Spring (March to May): Spring is a delightful season in Cyprus when the island bursts with lush vegetation and vibrant wildflowers. Temperatures gradually warm up, with daytime highs ranging from 17°C to 25°C (63°F to 77°F). This is a great time to explore the countryside and enjoy outdoor activities.


Cyprus’s Mediterranean climate includes a distinct wet season during the winter months and a dry season in the summer. The majority of rainfall occurs between November and March, with December and January being the wettest months. During this period, Cyprus receives the bulk of its annual precipitation, which supports agriculture and replenishes reservoirs and water sources.

The coastal regions, particularly the southern and eastern coasts, tend to receive less rainfall than the mountainous interior. The Troodos Mountains, in particular, capture a significant portion of the precipitation, resulting in lush forests and fertile valleys.

Wind Patterns:

Winds play a notable role in Cyprus’s climate. During the summer, Cyprus experiences the Etesian winds, also known as the Meltemi winds, which blow from the northwest and provide relief from the heat. These winds can bring cooler air and help moderate high temperatures along the coast. In contrast, the winter months often see the development of low-pressure systems, bringing rain and occasionally strong winds to the island.

Climate’s Impact on Agriculture and Tourism:

According to ehotelat, Cyprus’s climate significantly influences its agriculture and tourism sectors. The dry summers are ideal for cultivating crops like grapes, citrus fruits, olives, and various vegetables, contributing to the island’s rich agricultural heritage. The wine produced in Cyprus is renowned for its quality and flavor.

Tourism is another vital component of Cyprus’s economy, and the pleasant climate during the summer months attracts visitors from all over the world. The island’s beautiful beaches, historical sites, and cultural festivals are major draws for tourists, contributing significantly to the local economy.

In summary, Cyprus’s Mediterranean climate is characterized by hot, dry summers and mild, wet winters. This climate pattern is essential for its agricultural productivity, tourist appeal, and overall way of life. While the summers can be scorching, the island’s climate generally offers a comfortable and inviting environment for visitors throughout much of the year.