Until the end of the 1980s, the educational system was integrated into the Soviet Union. The primary school is 6 years old, followed by 2-year secondary school and 3-year high school. Since independence in 1991, extensive changes have been made, especially with regard to the ideological foundation of teaching. In addition, much greater emphasis has been placed on Georgian language, history and culture in the school. There are 26 higher education institutions in the country, of which 8 are universities, among others. in Tbilisi (founded 1918), a technical university in Tbilisi (1922/1990) and in Sukhumi (1985). There are over 200 private educational institutions in the country.
Georgia flag source: Countryaah.com
|Land area||69,700 km²|
|Population density (per km²）||57.3|
|Income per capita||$ 10,700|
|ISO 3166 code||GE|
|Time zone UTC||+ 4|
|Geographic coordinates||42 00 N, 43 30 O|
In August 2004, tension between South Ossetia and the central government in Tblisi increased. It came to armed clashes between Georgia and South Ossetia security forces, which cost several killed. The government declared that it had taken several strategic positions and promised to “pacify” the region once its troops were withdrawn.
In October, the presidential election in Abkhazia ended chaotically. The Supreme Court declared Sergey Bagapsh a winner, but after fierce protests this decision was reversed and the court demanded re-election. There were strong tensions between Bagapsh’s supporters and supporters of the counter-candidates.
In February 2005, Prime Minister Zurab Zhvania died and the President appointed Finance Minister Zurab Nogaideli as his successor.
In May 2005, Tblisi and Moscow agreed on the closure of Russian bases in Georgia, marking a new stage in relations between the two countries. Saakashvili stated that the agreement was a historic opportunity to resolve some of the historical conflicts between the two countries. The Soviet Union originally had 4 bases in Georgia. The two were closed and with the agreement the remaining two will be closed in the period up to 2008.
Since its takeover in 2004, Saakashvili has sought close relations with the United States. North Americans have trained Georgian soldiers, and at the same time, the Georgian military has grown from 13,000 to 45,000 men. Some of these are posted as mercenaries in Iraq. The United States, on the other hand, has been given base facilities in Georgia. Relations with Israel have also been developed. Georgia’s defense minister is Israeli, and it has placed large orders for approx. 1 billion US $ to the Israeli war industry. Israel, in turn, receives oil from Central Asia via the pipelines passing through Georgia.
In January 2006, explosions destroyed a gas line and a high-voltage connection, interrupting energy supply from Russia to Georgia for several days. Saakashvili accused Moscow of being behind the explosions to put pressure on Tblisi.
In May, relations between the two countries were further deteriorated and Saakashvili then threatened to leave the Association of Independent States (CIS) to seek closer relations with the EU instead. The association brings together the former Soviet republics.
In March 2007, Georgia sued Russia before the European Court of Human Rights. The reason was that Russia had deported hundreds of Georgians from Moscow on charges of being illegal immigrants. Tblisi claimed the deportees had been abused by Russian security personnel.
The opposition held extensive demonstrations against the government in the fall of 2007, and on November 7, Saakashvili declared the country in 14 days of state of emergency. Security forces cracked down on protesters with lace, tear gas, water cannons and high-tech acoustic weapons provided by the United States to fight protesters.
On November 16, Prime Minister Noghaideli resigned from the post for health reasons. In his place, Saakashvili appointed the businessman Lado Gurgenidze, who was educated in the United States. Already at the beginning of the month, the president had made new elections for the presidential post – a year ahead of time. On November 27, he announced that ifbm. At the same time, the January 2008 presidential election would be a referendum on the country’s accession to NATO. In May, Saakashvili also held parliamentary elections. An election that OSCE observers characterized as frauds and irregularities.