The primary school comprises 8 years (6-14). After a 5-year compulsory compulsory school follows a 3-year orientation stage. This is based on two types of 4-year secondary schools, one university preparation and the other vocational preparation. Iran has 29 universities and 12 research institutes (1990). The education is free of charge in compulsory school and university, while a smaller fee is charged in the continuing school. Textbooks are free during the first four years.
Major changes in the school system – which since the Second World War had been built on the American model – were implemented after the Islamic Revolution of 1979. An literacy campaign began in 1981. Illiteracy has dropped from 58% (1975) to 30% (1994), but regional differences are significant as well. those between men (78% literate) and women (64%). The number of schools has increased strongly, mainly due to the increase in population. Between 1971 and 1989 the number of pupils increased from 4.5 million to 12.9 million. During the same period, the allocations to the school system were fairly constant at between 15 and 18% of the state budget. School systems have become more practical, and according to the Chinese model, vocational schools and an association of theory and practice are emphasized. Since 1979, the Islamization of the school system has been significant, and Islam is being studied at all levels.
Iran flag source: Countryaah.com
1997 A small jerk to the west
At the election held on May 23, 1997, 90% of voters voted. Mohammad Khatami, who was considered the most Western-oriented, won the election with 69% of the vote. A new government joined in August, and Khatami announced a greater openness to the West. The legal decision to seize the influential Ayatolah Hussein Ali Montazeri’s funds was evidence of a sharpened power struggle within the clergy. Montazeris supported the new president and was a critic of the country’s spiritual leader, Khamenei. In a number of Iranian cities, support demonstrations were held in favor of Khamenei, and this was confirmed in his post. Montazeris had criticized the spiritual leader for maintaining an apparatus of power in parallel with the government and intervening in state affairs.
At the Islamic Conference in Tehran in December 1997, Israel was criticized for its “expansive policy”. The conference’s statement also condemned ” terrorism “. This was assessed as supporting Khatami in the struggle for power in Iran.
On the International Women’s Day on March 8, 1998, Iranian Vice President Masoume Ebtekar criticized the women’s repression in Afghanistan under Islamic Taliban rule. Unlike the development of the conservative Muslim countries, the Iranian women have the right to vote and occupy more and more responsible positions.
In November, a wave of murders aimed at dissident writers and politicians began. An official investigation revealed that officials at the Department of Intelligence were involved in the killings. This intensified the struggle for power between reformists and hard-line supporters. In February 1999, it prompted President Khatami to propose Attorney General Ali Yunesi as new intelligence minister.
After six days of student demonstrations in July 1999 in favor of the reopening of a closed daily and major liberalizations, the Orthodox sectors gathered hundreds of thousands of protesters in support of the Mullahs and the “revolutionary values”. Alí Khamenei sent a greeting to the demonstration, recommending the harshest sanctions against the opposition. Religious leader and spokesman for Parliament Hasan Rowhani declared that the arrested participants in student demonstrations should be sentenced to death. At the same time, the Orthodox sectors stated that the United States was behind the unrest.
A few days later, President Khatami made a journey through the province as a counter-offensive to the Orthodox. He repeatedly took the opportunity to declare that he would keep his promise from the campaign to defend civil rights, despite attacks by religious leaders who accused him of triggering the worst riots since the beginning of the 1979 Islamic revolution.
The February 2000 parliamentary elections were a major victory for the reform wing led by Khatami, who captured 226 of Parliament’s 290 seats. In March, the Hammihan daily printed the flag of the United States, which was the first time since the 1979. Revolution Although no specific law forbids the publication of this particular flag, Hammihan’s action was nonetheless perceived as a violation of a taboo.
After two years of negotiations, in April 2001, Iran and Saudi Arabia signed an agreement regulating the patrol of the common border cooperation between the police of both countries. Tehrán and Riyadh also agreed to fight terrorism, drug trafficking and organized crime.
A month later, the name of the street Jaled Eslamboli was changed to “the martyrs of the Intifada,” and the main obstacle to full resumption of diplomatic relations with Egypt was thus removed. The street had hitherto paid tribute to the assassination of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat – who had made peace with Israel – and it had been a source of friction between the two countries. The first contact between the two states ‘heads of state took place in June 2000, when Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak called Khatami to congratulate him on the decision to join the non-developed countries’ alliance.