School and Education in Iraq

Iraq has compulsory and free schooling from the children is 6 to 11 years. The education system has been greatly expanded since the 1970s, but war and the economic blockade have created major problems. The primary school is 6 years old and approx. 93% start in primary school. High school is 6 years old. 33% of the age group went to high school in 1999 (37% of the students were women).

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About. 14% of young people take higher education. The state is responsible for all education from kindergarten to university. In 1978, it was enacted that all illiterate persons had to enroll in an educational program. Many years of war and other practical problems have limited the literacy campaign.

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Over 60% of people over the age of 15 are illiterate, over 75% of women cannot read and write. As a result of the regime change in the country in 2003, extensive reforms have been implemented in the education sector.

Iraq Country Flag

Iraq flag source:

Iraq was the cradle of Sumerian civilization 6,000 years ago and housed developed communities such as Akkad, Babylon, Syria and Caldea for centuries. Mesopotamia (Greek: “between rivers”) was on the route through which the Asia-Europe campaigns went. This included the Persians, Greeks, Romans and Byzantines.

After the Arabs conquered the area in the 7th century (see Saudi Arabia), Mesopotamia became the center of a huge empire. 100 years later, the Abbas dynasty decided to move the capital from Damascus to the east, and Caliph al-Mansur built the new capital, Baghdad, by the banks of the Tigris. For three centuries, this “1001 night” city was the center of a new culture.

Since the Greeks, the Mediterranean area had not experienced similar flourishing of arts and sciences. But the empire was too vast to hold together, so when Harum al-Raschid died, it began to fall apart. The African provinces were lost, the entire area north and east of Persia became independent under the Tahirs, and the Caliphs were therefore increasingly forced to rely on armies of slaves or Sudanese and Turkish camp troops to maintain control over a land that remained less. When the Mongols killed the last caliph in Baghdad in 1258, the caliphate was already politically dead. After Genghis Khan conquered the area and ravaged agriculture, it fundamentally changed and was followed by a number of states led by Ottomans, Mongols, Turkmen, Tartars or Kurds. Afghanistan) caused great instability in the fertile crescent. In the 14th century, Timur Lenk made an initial attempt to unify the country, but it did not succeed until 16th century Ottoman leadership. The subsequent period was characterized by relative political-military calm, which allowed the irrigation canals to be rebuilt and the cultivated areas expanded.

World War 1. English colonialism

In the early 20th century, the movements for “Arab rebirth” were also very active in Iraq. They paved the ground for the great uprising that shook the Ottoman Empire during World War I (see also Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Syria). But the English were also present, and they were interested in expanding their influence in the area. However, expectations of independence when the Turks were first defeated were disappointed when the Soviet power published the secret Sykes-Picot Treaty of 1916, according to which England and France intended to divide the Arab world between them. Faisal – the son of Sheikh Hussain – had declared himself king of Syria and occupied Damascus, but according to the treaty, this land belonged to France, which had promised nothing to the Arabs, and Faisal was thrown out of the Syrian capital by military force. The formalization of the British mandate over Mesopotamia led to an uprising for independence in 1920.

1932 formal independence

In 1921, the emir emir Faisal ibn Hussain was appointed king of Iraq as compensation for his humiliation in Syria. In 1930, General Nuri as-Said was appointed prime minister. He signed an alliance agreement with the English, paving the way for the country’s formal independence on October 3, 1932. However, Iraq was already spun deep into the capitalist world economy. The country’s most important resources – the oil – had been extracted by British, North American, Dutch and French companies since the 1920s. Agriculture was transformed to meet Europe’s needs and the predominantly collective (tribal) use of land was broken down in favor of private land ownership in few hands. It was harsh on the rural population, which in many places revolted. Egypt, Syria and Iraq themselves were sharply distant.