Officially, the 9-year compulsory schooling from the children is 6 years, consisting of 4-year primary school and 5-year secondary school. Then follows 2-year general high school or 3-year vocational school. Around 85% of young people continue in high school and high school. The students are taught in Kyrgyz, Russian, Uzbek and Tajik. Higher education is offered at 33 higher education institutions, including the National University of Bishkek (founded 1951). In 1993, a separate university in Bishkek was opened to the Russian-speaking population. The proportion of illiterates of the adult population is estimated at approx. 3% (2000).
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2005 Revolution I
In February 2005, thousands of protesters blocked roads and buildings in the capital in support of 2 candidates who had been deleted as candidates in the parliamentary elections. Many other candidates had also been cleared for allegedly violating electoral rules. The Human Rights League based in New York declared itself “deeply alarmed” at the exclusions.
The first round of elections in February 2005 triggered demonstrations and allegations of electoral fraud. The protests escalated after the second round on February 13, culminating on the 21st, with protesters occupying a number of government buildings in the southern part of the country. In Bishkek, protesters occupied the presidential palace and Akayev fled to Russia. On March 5, opposition leader Kurmambek Bakiev was named interim president and in April Akayev formally submitted his resignation petition to parliament. At the July presidential election, Bakiyev was formally elected to the post of president. The economy is one of the biggest challenges facing the new government, as 40% of the population lives below the poverty line. Another challenge is to put together a government that reflects the regional and ethnic composition of the population.
Kyrgyzstan flag source: Countryaah.com
In November, more than 2,500 in the southern part of the country demonstrated with demands for the president’s intervention. The protesters stated in a statement that the increasing crime rate in Jalalabad – including involving government officials – creating deep concern in the population. The protesters at the same time called on the government to defend democracy, the judiciary and to make efforts to reactivate the economy.
At the end of April 2006, 10-15,000 members of the opposition gathered in front of the Bishkek government building demanding constitutional and legal reform, freedom of the press and punishment of corrupt officials. The protesters further demanded that the president’s chief of administration resign and the state attorney be fired.
On May 2, 13 out of the country’s 15 ministers resigned after Parliament passed a distrust agenda. Only remaining ministers were the Minister of Transport and Culture. However, Bakiev rejected the ministers’ resignation requests and gave them his full support.
After massive demonstrations in the capital Bishkek in November, Bakiev agreed to hand over parts of his power to parliament.
In April 2007, thousands of protesters gathered at the government building and sought Bakiev’s departure. He was accused of failing to solve the country’s serious problems of corruption and violence. Police cracked down on the demonstration and hundreds more were injured.
The December 16 election was overwhelmingly won by the Ak Zhol party, which gained a majority in parliament. On December 24, its leader, Igor Chudinov, was appointed new Prime Minister of the country.