There is a 9-year compulsory schooling from the children are 6 years old. 90% of children attend school. The primary school is 6 years old and the secondary school is 3 years old, followed by 3 years of upper secondary school. More than 60% of pupils in the preschool are attending private schools, and most of the higher and higher education institutions are private. There are 36 higher education institutions, among them one public university.
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Area: 10,452 km2 (world ranking: 163)
Population density: 582 per km2 (as of 2017, world ranking: 111)
Capital: Bayrut (Beirut)
Official languages: Arabic
Gross domestic product: 51.8 billion US $; Real growth: 2.0%
Gross national product (GNP, per resident and year): 8310 US$
Currency: 1 Lebanese. Pound (L £) = 100 piastres
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Head of State: Michel Aoun, Head of Government: Sa’ad Hariri, Outside: Gebran Bassil
National Day: 11/22
State and form of government
Constitution of 1926
Parliament: Assembly of Deputies (Majlis an-Nuwaab) with 128 members (64 Christians, 64 Muslims), election every 4 years
. Must be a Maronite Christian, head of government Sunni, parliamentary president Shiite.
Election of the head of state every 6 years by parliament (no immediate re-election)
Mandatory voting from 21 years.
last count 1970: 2,126,325 residents.
95% Arabs, 4% Armenians, Kurdish minority
Cities (with population): (As of 2015, all A) Bayrut (Beirut) 1,650,000 inh., Tarabulus (Tripoli) 450,000, Sayda (Sidon) 250,000, Sur (Tire) 160,000, Zahlah 140,000
Religions: 57% Muslims (50% each Shiite and Sunnis), 37% Christians (Maronites, Orthodox, Greek-Catholics, etc.), 6% Druze, etc. (as of 2006)
Languages: Arabic; Armenian, Kurdish and others; French and English
Employees by economic sector: no information
Unemployment (in% of all economically active persons)
Inflation rate (in%): 2017: 4.5%
Foreign trade: Import: 20.1 billion US $ (2017); Export: 4.0 billion US $ (2017)
Lebanon flag source: Countryaah.com
The Civil War 1975-76
The disguise of power and class relations in the country came out clearly during the Civil War of 1975-76, which also depicted Western mass media as a religious war. Certainly, certain Christian groups held a dominant position within the state apparatus and in economic life, and tragically, the population of many Christian villages allowed themselves to move on the “Christian” right – contrary to their objective interests. Still, the class nature of the conflict was undeniable. Many Christians joined the struggle for social justice by the Palestinians and the left, while the Muslim bourgeoisie consistently opposed the social demands of the left.
The cause of the turmoil was a serious deterioration in living conditions in the 1970s, when Lebanon was hit by the economic crisis in the capitalist world. This coincided with the growing number of Arab oil-producing countries in contact with Western consumer countries, while at the same time starting to invest profits in their own countries. The 1972 elections showed marked progress for the alliance of leftist parties – the Progressive Socialist Party, led by Kamal Jumblat assassinated in the spring of 1977, the Lebanese Baath, the Lebanese Communist Party and the Nazi groups. The electoral victory was followed by demonstrations and strikes. Demands were made for reforms in the political system and extensive social change. At the same time, the right wing – the Falangist Party, the Lebanese National Party and the Christian (Maronite) militia – mobilized to settle the Palestinian liberation movement. Lebanon had not participated in the Arab-Israeli war in 73, but had instead granted asylum to 300,000 Palestinian refugees – most thrown out of Jordan. The Palestinian presence became a pretext for Israel for frequent attacks across the common border and for bombing of the civilian population. At the same time, the Christian Lebanese Falange was deployed to the refugee camps. The right wing should protect the bourgeoisie privileges against the rising unrest, political radicalization and the looming alliance of the Palestinian and Lebanese leftist forces.
A prerequisite for the attack launched by the right wing in the spring of 1975 was that the leading Arab countries agreed to crush the Palestinian revolution, which stood in the way of a negotiated settlement with Israel. The right wing offensive slipped into the strategy of imperialism. As left-wing forces continued to prosper, Syria invaded the country in the summer of 1976, saving the right-wing forces from collapse. This prevented a progressive government in the country.
The Arab League, with its “peacekeepers” and the Syrian occupation gained immediate control of Lebanon, brought an end to the conflict and guaranteed its unity, but the causes of the civil war continued and the Israeli attacks on Lebanon continued. In 1981, the Israeli artillery, in coordination with the former Lebanese commander, Saad Haddad, bombed the Lebanese cities of Tire and Saida. At the same time, Syrian forces mounted anti-aircraft fire batteries in the Bekaa Valley. In July, Israel launched a series of attacks against Palestinian positions. They culminated in air strikes on the western part of Beirut, leaving 166 killed and about 600 wounded.