School and Education in Liberia

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In 1985 elections were held. In a climate of political banding, allegations of electoral fraud and incarceration of opposition leaders, Doe officially received 50.9% of the vote. The two strongest opposition parties – Liberia’s Peoples Party (LPP) and United Peoples Party (UPP) – were not allowed to participate in the election at all.

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In 1987, most of the state’s revenue came from the United States government. The superpower had vital interests in the country, such as $ 450 million investment, military bases, a Voice of America broadcasting station that covered the area, as well as the communications center for the North American diplomatic missions in Africa.

In May 1990, the National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL) launched an attack on the city of Gbarnga, 120 km from the capital, and within a short time the guerrilla movement managed to bring more points in the country under its control.

In June, NPFL led Charles Taylor appeared to be victorious in a short period of time, but when the Battle of Monrovia was launched in July, the front split and the Independent Patriotic Front of Liberia (INPFL) led by Prince Johnson emerged. On July 31, 200 civilian refugees in a Lutheran mission were killed by government soldiers.

In September 1990, President Samuel Doe was killed by Johnson’s troops, and in the confusing situation that ensued, Johnson, Taylor, Amos Sawyer and Raleigh Seekie (the former Chief of Do’s Presidential Guard) declared themselves interim presidents.

In November, Sawyer formed a Provisional Government recognized by the Côte d’Ivoire, Gambia, Nigeria, Burkina Faso and Togo. At the same time, a peace force consisting of 10,000 soldiers from Nigeria, 1,000 from Ghana and 600 from Guinea was sent into the country.

In 1992, Taylor was offered the vice presidential post by Sawyer but declined. The NPFL had a significant portion of the land under its control through the Patriotic National Assembly for Reconstruction. In August, an attack by the United Liberation Movement of Liberia for Democracy (ULIMO) on Tubmanburg north of Monrovia cost 2,000 NPFL partisans life.

In November, ULIMO split. Alhaji Kromah, who was accused of being associated with the Muslim groups and the government of Libya, led the faction that settled in Tubmanburg. Raleigh Seekie led the faction established in Sierra Leone.

In June 1993, ULIMO carried out an attack on the refugee camp in Kata. Acc. The UN High Commissioner for Refugees killed 450 people during the massacre and many of the corpses were abused.

The United States now supported the UN entering the conflict. This provided a green light for the Security Council to demand a ceasefire and launch a blockade of weapons supplies and other goods for the warring factions.

Fighting fatigue and UN interference led to the signing of a peace treaty in Geneva on 17 July 1993. The two main armed groups and Sawyer’s provisional government agreed to a 7-month ceasefire and the conduct of parliamentary elections.

The NPFL repeatedly protested against attacks by ULIMO, and the civil war flared up again. The UN embargo and the subsequent lack of food triggered a wave of civilian abuse on the part of the guerrillas.

In accordance with the Geneva agreement, in August it was decided to form a transitional State Council with representatives from NPFL, ULIMO and the Sawyer government.

The international organization Doctors Without Borders suffered 60% of children in the NPFL controlled areas of malnutrition and 20% suffered from diseases caused by the lack of protein. In some areas, 15 children die a day.

In March 1994, the Council of State met for the first time, but the composition of a new government was postponed until May due to disagreements between the three parties. Meanwhile, the armed clashes between the rival armed groups and with the Peace Force of the Economic Cooperation Organization of the West African States (ECOMOG) continued.

In December, the 7 groups that were in armed combat agreed to a ceasefire. Negotiations between the parties involved continued in 1995 and the composition of the Cabinet was expanded as Charles Taylor stepped in and a new government was formed.