In Madagascar the education follows a 5-4-3 system, where the primary school lasts for 5 years, the secondary school for 4 years and the secondary school for 3 years. According to UNESCO, 35.5% of the population over 15 years were illiterate in 2009.
The official school age is 6 years. The primary school is in principle free and compulsory. There are both public and private schools. In 2002, 69% of six-year-olds started school. About. 22% of children attend private primary schools. Since 1976, Malagasy has been the language of instruction in elementary and other public schools. French is compulsory both in primary and secondary school.
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The University of Antananarivo is the country’s leading university. Only about 4% of the population aged 18-22 received higher education in 2011.
In front of thousands of supporters, Ravalomanana declared himself president in February 2002. At the same time, he appointed 9 ministers. It came to a clash between the supporters of the two candidates and Ratsiraka declared Antananarivo in the state of emergency. The country was paralyzed and Ratsiraka and his ministers retreated to the country’s second largest city, Toamasina as they declared the country’s new capital. At the same time, they launched an economic blockade of Antananarivo. In March, Ravalomanana took control of the Interior Ministry, Ratsiraka’s last bastion in Antananarivo, and further proclaimed himself commander-in-chief of the armed forces.
Madagascar flag source: Countryaah.com
In April, the Constitutional Court canceled the result of the December voting and asked for a new count, which was accepted by both candidates. The new census results gave Ravalomanana 51.46% of the vote, making him the country’s new president. Ratsiraka got 35.9% and he refused to accept the result, declaring that the Constitutional Court was biased against him.
In the first week of May, Toamasina province declared itself independent. In this way, Ratsiraka sought to surround the capital and cut it off from the country’s ports, but he had to recoup a series of military and diplomatic defeats. After the United States, Australia, Japan, Germany and the former colonial power of France recognized the government of Ravalomanana, Ratsiraka fled to Seychelles and from there on to July in France. When the conflict was finally over and Ravalomanana had gained control over the country, parliamentary elections were held to test the popularity of the new government. That gave him a majority in parliament.
In 2003, the fugitive Ratsiraka was sentenced to 10 years of forced labor for public money fraud. Former Prime Minister Tantely Andrianarivo was sentenced to 12 years of forced labor.
In February-March 2004, Madagascar sought international assistance after a cyclone ravaged especially the northern part of the country. 200,000 people had been made homeless and several died. The country is often ravaged by cyclones during the winter months. In April, the EU Commission decided to grant DKK 2 million. Euro in aid to the victims of the natural disasters.
In October, the World Bank reduced Madagascar’s foreign debt by $ 2 billion. At the same time, the IMF provided a loan of DKK 16 million. US $ to support the country’s economic growth and poverty reduction. In this context, IMF Director General Rodrigo Rato stated: “Madagascar’s immediate challenges are to maintain macroeconomic stability, accelerate structural reforms and expand the breadth of export products to increase exports and economic development.”