Education is compulsory and free between the ages of 7 and 16 years. The primary school starts at the age of seven and lasts for nine years. The secondary school consists of three years of theoretical high school or two or four years of vocational school. Eight out of ten children start primary school, while less than a third of pupils go on to secondary school. The proportion of girls is lower than the proportion of boys, especially in secondary school.
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Opportunities for higher education exist in the country, but a large proportion of the students at this level study abroad – especially in Senegal and France. The reading and writing skills of the adult population (15 years and over) were estimated to be 26% in 2006 (35% for men and 18% for women). In 2009, 22% of government spending went to education.
Mali flag source: Countryaah.com
Civilian Prime Minister is appointed
The junta-appointed committee elects a civilian, Moctar Ouane, as prime minister of a transitional government. He takes office a day later. Moctar Ouane was Foreign Minister between 2004 and 2011 when Amadou Toumani Touré was President.
Civilian president with military background
A committee appointed by the junta appoints Bah N’Daw as president of a transitional government that will hold power for 18 months, until general elections are held. Bah N’Daw is retired and most recently Secretary of Defense in the government of ousted President Keita. Most of his career, however, is military; Bah N’Daw has, among other things, been a fighter pilot, chief of staff for the air force and deputy chief of staff for the National Guard. The junta leader Colonel Assimi Goita is appointed vice president. The appointments come after pressure from, above all, the regional cooperation organization Ecowas. Ecowas has called for a civilian-led transitional government to lift the sanctions imposed on Mali following the August 18 coup. The junta again urges both the UN and France to maintain their peacekeeping forces in the country.
Ecowa’s deadline expires
The deadline for Ecowa’s demand for the junta to appoint a civilian president and prime minister for a transitional government expires, without anything happening. After new talks with the junta, Ecowas says that civilian leaders will be presented “within a few days”.
June 5 rejects the junta’s contract
The opposition movement Fifth June rejects a social contract that the junta believes was clubbed the day before after discussions with about 500 representatives of the opposition, religious leaders and civil society. According to the social contract, Mali will return to civilian rule after an 18-month transition period. It is unclear whether the transitional government will be led by a civilian or military person. However, June 5 says that the contract has been slaughtered by the junta and does not reflect the discussions that have taken place for several days.
Ecowas increases the pressure on the junta
The West African co-operation organization Ecowas demands that the military junta appoint a civilian president and a civilian prime minister for a one-year transitional government by 15 September. In the past, the Ecowas countries have closed their borders with Mali and suspended trade with the country. The junta now wants a two-year military-led transition period (initially it required three years). The ousted President Keïta suffered a minor stroke on the same day and was flown to the United Arab Emirates for treatment.
The junta is appointing new people to key positions
The military junta appoints a new chief of staff for the army, General Oumar Diarra. He replaces General Abdoulaye Coulibaly, who is being held by the junta. New people are also appointed to the posts of Director-General of the Intelligence Service, Chief of Staff of the National Guard (part of the Army) and Secretary-General of the Ministry of Defense.