The former central government of the Moscow school system has, with its independence, been replaced by a marked emphasis on the school as the main instrument of Moldovan nation-building. The compulsory compulsory school, in which the children start at the age of 7, comprises eleven years. The primary school is 4 years old and the secondary school 7 years old, divided into two stages (5 + 2). About 90% of children attend primary school and about 80% secondary school (2008). After compulsory school, vocational or university preparatory courses follow.
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The colleges are the part of the teaching system that was most affected by the changes. Romanian has succeeded Russian as the dominant language of instruction and syllabuses and literature have been modernized and avidologized. The previously strict divide between teaching and research has been partially broken down by an incipient integration of the Academy of Sciences and the universities. An example of this is the new business school in the capital. Other higher education institutions include the State University (1945), the Polytechnic University (1964) and the Agricultural University (1932), all located in Chișinău. In 2009, 21% of the state’s expenditure on education went.
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Moldova flag source: Countryaah.com
In September 2010, a referendum to amend the constitution was carried out so that in future the president should not be elected by parliament with a 3/5 majority, but instead directly by the people. Although 87.8% voted in favor of the proposal, the voting percentage was as low as 30.3% and the proposal therefore declined because it did not reach 33%. Parliament was therefore dissolved and new elections were held in November. In the election, the Communist Party PCRM went a further 5.4% back to 39.3. In contrast, the Liberal Democratic Party PLDM went 12.9% to 29.4%. However, the opposition does not reach the 61 seats required to appoint a president. In December, Marian Lupu assumed the post of acting president. He was a former communist, but in 2009 he became a liberal.
Independent Nicolae Timofti was elected President of Parliament in March 2012, which happened after unsuccessful polls in December and January when 2 other candidates had been in the running. The Communist Party boycotted the vote on the grounds that Parliament was illegitimate. Timofti stated that his first priority would be the country’s orientation towards Europe – just like his predecessor. In May, the President amended Act 100 on Civil Status, so Moldavians who perceive Sim as Romanian rather than have to identify themselves as Romanian to the Moldovan authorities.
In November 2012, Russia gave Moldova an ultimatum to terminate its energy agreements with Europe, unless it would lose the Russian gas discount.
In March 2013, Prime Minister Vladimir Filat lost a vote of confidence in parliament and resigned, although President Timofti issued a decree ordering him to continue in office. In April, the Constitutional Court declared that a new prime minister should be appointed – though not Filat. The president therefore appointed Iurie Leancă as new acting prime minister. In May, the former government coalition was transformed into the “Pro-European Coalition” consisting of the country’s bourgeois parties. The coalition elected Leancă as prime minister.
LGBT people are being persecuted and harassed in Moldova. After banned Pride marches for several years, authorities for the first time in 2013 allowed such a march, but the march was halted by security forces as homophobic counter-protesters found out where the march was to be conducted.
Torture and mistreatment of prisoners and detainees continued to be widespread in the country, and security forces enjoyed almost total impunity. In December 2013, a police officer was acquitted of beating student Valeriu Boboc to death April 7, 2009. Police subsequently claimed that Boboc had died of poisoning. Subsequently, footage from surveillance cameras was shown showing the police beating Boboc. This evidence was ignored by the judge.
In November 2013, the country signed an association agreement with the EU during the EU summit in Vilnius. The country wanted to join the EU, but the unresolved problem of the Transnistrian breakaway republic in the border with Ukraine barred this.