School and Education in Mongolia

Since 1992, the educational system has removed itself from the Soviet influence, which began in the 1920s. The country is trying to base its education on its ancient traditions, while at the same time the Western influence is evident.

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There is a 10-year compulsory school from the children are 6 years to the age of 16. The school is divided into 6 years of primary school and 4 years of secondary school. About. 89% of children attend school. Higher education in engineering and vocational education is offered to young people aged 16-18. The country has seven universities. The State University of Ulan Bator was founded in 1942. Although more than half of the population lives in porky areas or are nomads, there are less than 2% illiterate people (2003).

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Twenty years after the collapse of communism, economic growth may well be registered in the country, but wealth is not distributed and the gap between rich and poor is deepened year by year. It is demonstrated and protested almost daily against the government to have it implement reforms, but without result. The migration from country to city in search of better living conditions accelerates, but without the farmers finding what they are looking for. Almost half of the population lives below the poverty line.

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On June 29, 2008, parliamentary elections were held. The vote counted the day after a clear lead for the ruling party (MRF), and opposition coalition Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj immediately accused the government of electoral fraud. The day after, he declared that his coalition would not recognize the election result, and in the capital, demonstrations erupted. Protesters attacked MRF headquarters and set it on fire. During the day, 5 protesters were killed and in the evening the country was put in 4 days of emergency. When the official election results were announced on July 14, 46 seats were added to the MRF, while Elbegdorj’s coalition had to settle for 27. In mid-August, 10 police officers who had shot protesters sharply on 1/2. July arrested.

The opposition boycotted the months following the parliamentary elections, but in mid-September a coalition government was formed between the MRF and the opposition coalition with Sanjaagiin Bayar as prime minister.

In May 2009, Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj won the presidential election as candidate for the Democratic Party with 51.1% of the vote against the 47.4% of the incumbent president. He thus became the first president who did not have membership of the Mongol Revolutionary People’s Party (the former Communist Party) behind him. The authorities had feared unrest the year before the parliamentary elections, but the election was peaceful.

Elbegdorj’s first official act was to draft an amnesty law that released 300 people who were imprisoned after the riots the year before. However, the president was up against a parliament controlled by his political opponents in the MRF, which diminished his potential for legislative initiatives. In January 2010, he declared that he will systematically pardon all the convicts in the future and will work to change the maximum sentence to 30 years in prison. He argued that most countries in the world have already abolished the death penalty and that Mongolia should do so as well. However, the MRF was opposed, so the country has continued the death penalty. In January 2012, however, it signed the Protocol on Social and Political Rights, which was seen as an important step towards the final abolition of the death sentence as a punishment in the country.

The 2008 economic crisis caused a sharp fall in world metal prices and led to a corresponding drastic decline in Mongolia’s export revenue. But from 2010, the value of the country’s exports grew again significantly.