Basic education is nine years, compulsory and free for anyone between 6 and 15 years. The language of instruction is Montenegrin. Continuing education is available in three types: four-year theoretical upper secondary education, three- to four-year higher vocational education and two- to three-year practical education. Post-secondary education is provided at the State University of Crne Gore (University of Montenegro), established in 1974, and the private University of Mediteranitet from 2006 and University of Donja Gorica with degrees since 2010, all three in the capital Podgorica. In addition, there are a number of state and private colleges, e.g. business school and art college in Podgorica and a private tourism college in Bar.
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The quality of education deteriorated sharply in the 1990s (see also Business and Industry), and then not enough resources were allocated to strengthen it. In international comparisons, Montenegrin children have shown poor results. Since independence in 2003, the program has been implemented slowly, incrementally and with funds from eg. The World Bank reform program to adapt the education system to European standards and improve quality. The compulsory schooling has been extended and teachers are being trained to come into contact with modern teaching methods. Textbooks and other materials are produced to suit all students. Much is also being done to ensure that vocational training meets the needs of the labor market. In practice, however, resources are still lacking, both educated teachers and premises and materials. It is common for parents to pay for the teaching materials and that books in minority languages are missing for the younger children. Low teacher salaries contribute to corruption. In 2010, it was estimated that 98.4% of adults were literate. Illiterate people are among those who do not speak Montenegrin, e.g. among Roma women.
Montenegro flag source: Countryaah.com