In 1963, compulsory schooling was introduced. The compulsory school covers six plus three years and starts at the age of six. The primary school covers about 90% of the pupils and the secondary school just over a third. Many children discontinue schooling because they are forced to contribute to the family’s living. Teaching languages are Arabic in primary school and Arabic and French at higher levels. The latter are, with few exceptions, only in the larger cities. The state schools do not cover the need, and beside them are private and foreign (French) schools. In 2008, 26% of government spending went to education.
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Of the adult population, 56% are estimated to be literate (2009). However, the differences are large between different age groups and between the sexes; About 80% of young people are literate, and women’s literacy is significantly poorer than men’s (44% versus 69%).
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Morocco has 14 state universities; the largest is Hassan II in Casablanca, and al-Qarawiyin in Fès (founded 859) is considered the world’s oldest. Many university students apply for higher education abroad, especially to France.
With the stagnation of the war, signs of internal contradictions in the army emerged at the beginning of 1983. The military crisis became public with the assassination of General Ahmed Dlimi, commander-in-chief of the Royal Armed Forces, who died under mysterious circumstances after making contacts in Europe. ending the war in the Sahara.
Morocco flag source: Countryaah.com
On June 10, 1983, the Moroccans went to the polls to elect 15,492 city council members across the country. According to international election observers, the census figures of the government were manipulated. The opposition on the left criticized the scam and accused King Hassan II of disregarding popular will.
In 1984, the Democratic Arab Saharaui Republic (RASD) became a member of the African unity organization OAU. Morocco responded by withdrawing from the OAU. RASD had been proclaimed by partisans from Frente Polisario in the former Spanish Sahara in 1976.
As the top religious representative, the Moroccan king began to worry about the emergence of new Islamic currents that are expanding across the Arab world. For this reason, King Hassan increased the administrative means to strengthen the power of ulemas’ and other religious representatives.
In 1987, the Moroccan monarch suggested to Spanish King Juan Carlos that the governments of both countries set up an “analysis group” to investigate the future of Ceuta and Melilla. But the proposal was not welcomed in Spain, insisting on the “historical character” of the Spanish presence in Ceuta and Melilla.
After 12 years of tensions, in May 1988, Morocco and Algeria re-established diplomatic relations, thanks to mediation from Saudi Arabia and Tunisia. The reason for the breakdown of relations had been the war in the Sahara, with Algeria openly supporting the Saharaui nationalists from the start. The approximation between the countries enabled the construction of a gas pipeline that unites both countries with Europe across the Strait of Gibraltar. From 1995, a joint Algerian-Moroccan company headquartered in Rabat was made responsible for the transport of 10-15 billion m 3 of Algerian gas annually.
The number of unemployed in Morocco is increasing day by day. Each year, 1 million people leave rural areas and move into the city, which has drastically worsened the housing situation, water supply, renovation and other services. This in turn increases emigration towards Europe. In October 1992 alone, 800 Moroccans were arrested in Tarifa, southern Spain, when they illegally tried to enter the country.
In 1992, a drastic “adjustment” of the economy took place. The government deficit had been reduced from 10% of the budget in the 80s to 3.2% in 92. The trade balance was in equilibrium and foreign exchange reserves were increased.