Before independence in 1990, Namibia had a segregated school system with high standards in schools for whites, an intermediate standard for so-called colored and substandard schools and education for the black majority. Afrikaans was then the language of instruction for everyone. Resources are still unevenly distributed due to the inheritance of the South African government, but for many years the new free state has invested tremendously in reforming the school system and increasing literacy among both children and adults. The education system is 6.4% of GDP (2008). In 2009, 89% of the adult population (over 15 years) was estimated to be literate.
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The children have ten years of compulsory schooling, from the age of six, and about 90% of all school-aged children were enrolled in school in 2009. The school system consists of the primary school (grades 1–7), the secondary school (grades 8–12) and technical education after grade 10. The teaching shall be in the mother tongue of the children for the first three years and thereafter in English. In Namibia, the distribution between girls and boys is fairly even in the first class. Slightly more girls than boys complete primary school.
Namibia flag source: Countryaah.com
A national university was established in the capital Windhoek in the early 1990s.