School and Education in Nepal


Nepal’s educational system is characterized by the country’s character of primitive agricultural land with the unwillingness of parents to send their children, especially the girls, to the school. This consists of primary school (1981 extended from 3 to 5 year courses) and secondary school (2 plus 3 year courses). School starts are at the age of 6, but schooling is not compulsory and the absence rate, even among those who are registered, is high. The dropout rate at both the primary and secondary stages is very high, especially at the beginning of the stages. Only a third of the girls start school.

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The secondary school leads to a school leaving certificate, which however only a small minority manages to conquer. Literacy in the mid-1990s was about 47% for women and 82% for men. The school receives about 10% of government expenditure.

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Birendra’s monarchy was accused of systematically violating human rights. In mid-1989, 300 political prisoners were held in the Nepali prisons. Of these, 200 were detained under the Public Security Act of 1961, also known as Kalo Kanoon (the black law). Like other King’s laws, this is a violation of the protection of human rights enshrined in the 1962 Constitution.

On April 12, 1991, the first free elections were held in Nepal after 32 years of semi-monarchist rule. Nepal’s Communist Party and Congress Party formed an alliance for the election, and other parties joined it. The Communists got 4 of the 5 seats in the capital, but most of the mandates went to the ruling Congress party.

Nepal Country Flag

Nepal flag source:

On May 15, Prime Minister Bhattarai resigned. The new government appointed Congressman Girija Prasad Koirala as new prime minister. He promised to introduce mixed economics, earmark 70% of the state’s revenue to the land, and implement a land reform. At the same time, he did the first 4 years of schooling for free.

In late 1991, the opposition criticized Koirala harshly for signing some agreements with India. They were characterized as “selling out national interests” as India gained access to 5 hydropower projects. The prime minister defended that it was difficult to conclude secret agreements on the country’s natural resources when the new constitution required parliament to approve these types of resolutions by a two-thirds majority.

The rivers that originate in the Himalayas and run through Nepal make the country one of the world’s richest in terms of hydropower and hydropower potential. Government policy is oriented towards harnessing this potential for energy generation, flood control and irrigation projects.

The governments of Nepal and India signed two agreements – one on trade and the other on transport. Both from the left and the right, the government was criticized for not revising the 1950 Friendship Treaty. purchase weapons in countries other than India.

Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala is also the Congress Secretary-General, Foreign, Finance, Defense and Health Minister.

In March 1992, 22,000 refugees from Bhutan sought refuge in Nepal due to ethnic conflicts in their homeland. In April, a general strike and demonstrations against the corruption and price increases were knocked down by the government. It cost 6 people life. Curfew did not hinder the conduct of new protests.

In order to attract foreign investment, in February 1993, the Prime Minister made the Nepalese rupee fully convertible to foreign currencies while concluding new trade agreements with India. Development assistance to Nepal represents two-thirds of the state budget.

In April 1993, an Indian-Nepalese Commission was set up to investigate the bilateral trade agreement which in 1990 had led to a diplomatic crisis.

In the middle of the year, heavy monsoon rains caused several regions of the country to be flooded, significant crops were lost and 1,000 lost their lives. the official information.

As of 1994, the state demanded $ 50,000 from each of the expeditions that wanted to climb Mt. Everest. In the same year, plans were made for new planting of the mountains, which had lost 70% of their vegetation.

Prime Minister Koirala was unable to show results in his fight against poverty, illiteracy and in his development programs. When he lost his parliamentary majority and the conflicts tapered off in his congressional party, he was forced to resign on July 10, 1994. In the November election, Nepal’s United Communist Party gained 88 seats in the House of Representatives, thus overtaking the Congress party 83. Man Mohan Adhikari was appointed new Prime Minister.