School and Education in Nigeria


A new school system was introduced in 1982. The responsibility for the school is shared between the National Ministry of Education and its regional counterpart in the different states. Officially, there is a compulsory schooling for 9 years from the age of six. Of the adult population, 61% (50% of women and 72% of men) are estimated to be literate (2009).

The foundation of the school system is a 6-year primary school followed by a 6-year secondary school divided into two three-year stages. Attempts are made to create a national consciousness through the curricula. In addition to the usual school system, there are special state education programs for highly gifted pupils as well as for the nomadic population in the northern regions.

The investments that the oil revenues admitted meant that enrollment in both primary and secondary schools increased explosively from the 1970s. However, the deterioration of the economy during the 1980s and 1990s meant that the quality of education had drastically decreased, and the trend continued with a shortage of school premises and too few and too poorly paid teachers. The dropout rate for students is very large, especially in primary school; only about 60% of children of current age attend primary school, and of these, only 4/5 complete it (2007). Large differences exist between the southern and northern parts of the country. In the southern region, missionary influence has led to a large proportion of young people attending school, while schools in the Muslim north have significantly fewer students. Well-ordered families have a growing number of private schools to send their children to.

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A disproportionate share of the resources goes to higher education. Nigeria has over 100 universities and colleges, whose teaching, however, is often of low quality.

President Yar’Adua died in May 2010 and his Vice President, Goodluck Jonathan took over the presidential post. Jonathan had already held the post in January/ February, while Yar’Adua was hospitalized in Saudi Arabia. The shift was not without complications, as Nigeria has a system where the presidential post goes on a shift between Christians and Muslims. Jonathan is a Christian and took over the post in the midst of the Muslim Yar’Adua tenure, which raised the question of whether the Christians were given ½ period too much – or possibly. too little. This political debate was put on hold after Jonathan took over the post. In August, Jonathan presented an ambitious plan to electrify the country.

In April 2011, presidential elections, won by Jonathan with 58.9% of the vote. The election was not uncontroversial, as the country’s Muslims thought it was their turn to hold the post as a Christian had held the post during the previous period. At the same time, there were reports of scams in the northern part of the country. However, the controversy came under control after the result was clear. Jonathan was elected and his Muslim vice president Mohammed Namadi Sambo continued in the post.

Boko Haram rapidly expanded its activities during 2011. Its activities cost approx. 425 life in northern Nigeria during the year. It carried out dozens of attacks in Maiduguri; shot down policemen, politicians, traditional leaders and imams in opposition to Boko Haram. In August, the organization carried out a suicide attack against the UN building in Abuja, which cost 24 lives and over 100 wounded. In November, it carried out bomb attacks in Damaturu in the state of Yobe, costing over 100 lives.

Ethnic clashes and clashes between Christians and Muslims continued through 2011. In the Plateau state alone, they cost 350 people killed. In addition, hundreds in the surrounding states came.

Security forces and military were responsible for widespread torture and murder, and some point to the radicalization of Boko Haram in connection with the authorities’ original violent behavior towards the organization.

Decades of oil extraction in the Niger Delta have created one of the world’s largest environmental disasters. A UN report from 2011 concluded that it will cost more than $ 1 billion. US $ to clean up after the oil companies. The biggest culprit among these is Shell.

The president announced Jan. 1, 2012, that the state was removing the subsidies for gasoline. It made the price say 100-140% and immediately sparked protests in Abuja, Lagos and Kano. blocked gas stations. A week later, the country’s LO joined the protests by declaring a strike. Despite the peaceful nature of the protests, 16 protesters were killed by police. After two weeks of protests, the subsidies were partially reintroduced so that the price increase «only» became 50%. Although Nigeria is one of the world’s largest oil producers, the country had to import gasoline as its own refineries had fallen into disrepair.

Floods in August-October 2012 cost more than 300 people and killed more than 1 million people. people on the run. The floods affected 15 of the country’s states.

Summary executions remained a major problem. In March 2012, the chairman of the National Human Rights Organization estimated that the police kill 2,500 people annually. Torture and degrading treatment of prisoners is also very widespread. In addition, the police often hold prisoners hostage to release them for payment. A result of the huge corruption in the country.