Pakistan’s school system is a structure and main content a legacy of colonial times. It consists of a primary stage of 5 years (5-9 years), an intermediate stage of 3 years and a secondary stage of 2 + 2 years. The ambition to include all children in primary school has not been fulfilled. The fact that only over 70% of 5-9 year olds attend school is mainly due to the population’s poverty, low participation of girls, drop-out rates and insufficient educational resources. After 10 years of schooling, a transition can be made to a 3-5 year college, which provides technical or medical education and leads to a bachelor’s degree. The schools are poorly equipped, and many must stay closed during summer heat and winter cold.
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|Land area||796,095 km²|
|Residents per km²||293.3|
|Income per capita||$ 5,400|
|ISO 3166 code||PK|
|Time zone UTC||+5|
|Geographic coordinates||30 00 N, 70 00 O|
In addition to the modern school system, there is a traditional, Islamic embossed system, attached to the mosques, where teaching about the Qur’an and this is memorized. The religious schools teach only a small minority but provide the modern system with the teachers who will convey Islamic values to future generations.
Reading and writing skills have increased steadily since the 1980s, but the proportion of illiterates is still high. However, since the mid-00s, the positive development has stopped. According to UNESCO, 79% of men and 62% of women were literate in 2009. In the older part of the population (over 65), literacy is below 25%.
Pakistan flag source: Countryaah.com
Pakistan means “the land of the pure”. It was religion – Islam – that became the unifying force for a people of different ethnicities and languages. The poet and philosopher Mohamed Iqbal was the first to formulate the concept of Pakistan simply when he proposed in 1931 the formation of a state for the Muslims of India.
The first Muslims to arrive in the Indian subcontinent were traders from Arabia and Persia. The first permanent Muslim conquest was by Sind and was undertaken by Mohamed ibn Qasim in 711. In the 13th century a major Muslim principality was created in India with the capital of Delhi. After the conquest of the area – including present-day Pakistan – it was ruled by a number of Muslim dynasties, the last of which was the Great Mughals.
The problems of Muslim identity became particularly important as the Muslim power decayed and when Hindu intermediate layers under British colonial rule in India strengthened their position. At the beginning of the 20th century, Muslim leaders in India agreed on the need to develop an effective political organization. In October 1906, a delegation of Muslim leaders met with the King of India in India – the highest representative of the British imperial government in the country. They called for a reform of the electoral system with a separate representation for Muslims. That same year, the All India Muslim League (India’s Muslim League) was formed in Dacca in present-day Bangladesh. Its purpose was to defend the political rights and interests of the Indian Muslims. In 1909, the British agreed to split the electoral system with the Indian Government Act, which at the same time recognized the Muslim League as a representative organization for the Indian Muslims.
Throughout the 1930s, recognition among Muslims grew of their distinctive identity and the need to preserve it within their own geographical boundaries. Under the leadership of Mohamed Ali Jinnah, the Muslim League continued its campaign for Pakistan – a separate territory within British India. Following the April 1946 elections, the league convened a congress of Muslim MPs who had just been elected to the Delhi parliament. At the request of Hussain Shaheed Suhrawardi who was Prime Minister of Bengal, Congress reiterated the demand for the creation of Pakistan.
1972 Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto to power
In keeping with the election results, Ali Bhutto took over the post of President after Ayub Khan in the retreat of western Pakistan. Gradually, relations with Bangladesh were normalized and the civilian government under Bhutto’s leadership launched a series of reforms: minimum wage, price controls, nationalization of half a hundred industries, changes in civil and military administration, land reform and transfer of, among other things. cotton-cleaning plants and grain mills for public ownership. Compared to the 1960s, in the first half of the 70s, greater emphasis was placed on measures designed to improve living conditions among the most disadvantaged. However, there was no radical change in the development strategy, which continued to be based on the private initiative in parallel with increased public investment.
A new constitution that made Pakistan a Muslim republic with Islam as a public religion was adopted in 1973. At the March 1977 elections, the PPP gained a large majority. Opposition parties gathered in a national alliance claimed widespread electoral fraud. They boycotted the National Assembly and mobilized large crowds for demonstrations to bring Bhutto to a fall and get re-elected.