It is compulsory and free school for six years for children aged 6-15. The elementary school is 6 years old, and the secondary school is 6 years old. Almost all children attend primary school, and 62% of them attend high school. The country has one private and two state universities and a number of private higher education institutions. About. 8% of the adult population is illiterate (2001).
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1964 Stronger requirements for control of the channel
“Our geographical location is our most important natural resource,” confirms the Panaman. In January 1964, 21 Panamanian students were killed as they tried to hoist their country’s flag in the Channel Zone, which is under North American jurisdiction. The sacrifice of young people was quickly made a national symbol of Panama. The desire to bring the whole country under Panamanian control – including the Channel Zone – was institutionalized by General Omar Torrijos’ takeover of power in 1969, when the military triumvirate that overthrew President Arnulfo Arias in 1968 was overthrown. The diplomatic struggle for control of the Channel Zone was waged in all international forums, and was supported by Latin American countries, the Alliance Free Countries Movement and the UN.
The struggle for control of the Channel Zone merged the Panamanian people and created a national feeling that had otherwise been dissolved over decades due to US cultural, economic and military intrusions. In parallel, the Torrijos government initiated social change, with the aim of creating a more socially just society. The funds were land reform, education system reform, the extraction of the country’s copper from national criteria and the “banana war” aimed at obtaining fairer prices from international fruit companies such as the North American UFCO (United Fruit Company).
The United States was forced to negotiate a new channel agreement, because this particular issue hampered an improvement in the reputation of the superpower among Latin American countries. The 1977 Torrijos-Carter Channel Agreement canceled the previous one. It stated that the canal would be transferred to Panama in the year 2000. But from the outset, the United States Senate broke the treaty and made additions to the treaty to ensure that the superpower was entitled to militarily intervene in Panama even after the year 2000, «in defense of channel “.
Panama flag source: Countryaah.com
On July 31, 1981, General Omar Torrijos died in an unprecedented crash. Unverified versions say the aircraft’s instruments were dazzled by radio signals from the ground. President Arístides Royo had succeeded Torrijos in the post in 1978. He now lost support of the National Guard, was forced by the garden’s new commander, Rubén Paredes, to resign, and Paredes now initiated a process of rapprochement with the United States. But the role of superpower in Malvinasthe April-May 1982 war and the creation of the Contadora Group – which Panama was also a part of – further aggravated relations between the two countries. The island of Contadora had become famous when the United States installed the Persian shah Reza Pahlevi here after it was overthrown in 1979. The Contadora group was formed by a number of countries to promote the peace process in Central America – to the great regret of the United States.
In 1983, Paredes was replaced as commander of the National Guard by General Manuel Noriega. The 1984 presidential and parliamentary elections were won by a narrow margin by Nicolás Barletta. He was a candidate for the Partido Revolucionario Democrático (Democratic Revolutionary Party, PRD), which Torrijos had established and which received support from the armed forces. The opposition, led by old politician Arnulfo Arias, accused the government of electoral fraud.
A growing opposition to Barletta’s policy developed and he retired in late 1985. He was succeeded by Eric del Valle, but the country’s strong man continued to be General Noriega, and although initially on the CIA’s payroll, he eventually became so independent that the United States wanted him overthrown. First of all, the superpower could not forgive him for not being more willing to support the US invasion of Nicaragua. The United States therefore initiated intensive propaganda targeting Noriega. He was charged with drug trafficking and other crimes. The opposition joined forces in the Cruzada Civilista Nacional (National Civil Crusade), which consisted of center-right parties and with extensive support from the country’s business owners.