School and Education in Rwanda

After the 1994 massacres, the central goal of education in Rwanda has been to counter the ethnic contradictions in the country and create an equal education system for all. The elementary school is free and compulsory for 6 years from the children is 7 years. 84% of children started primary school in 2001, but only 22% completed primary school. The school system is largely run by the mission and the Catholic Church. In 2001, according to UNESCO, approx. 32% of the adult population is illiterate. The Université nationale du Rwanda (UNR) was established in Butare in 1963.

Former Prime Minister of the Hutu Government, Jean Kambanda, decided to plead guilty and cooperate with the international court, which he provided information about his former colleagues in the Hutu government. Instead of the death penalty, Kambanda was sentenced to life imprisonment.

Rwanda President Pasteur Bizimungu stated to the press: “We do not bore the Europeans, but we must not forget, after all, that it is precisely those who are responsible for the chaos that exists in the region.” Bizimungu hereby joined the critics and the condemnations made by human rights organizations against France, Belgium and the United States for being responsible for the genocide by their actions and lack thereof.

The clashes between government forces and the Hutu militia of Interahamwe in the country’s northwest corner continue through 1998, leaving hundreds of dead.

Rwanda Country Flag

In October 1999, Prime Minister Pierre Celestin Rwigema – one of the few hutus in the government – was accused of diverting hundreds of thousands of dollars of international aid to his own projects, such as building schools in his home region.

The country’s authorities were “offended” by the international court’s release of one of the main genocide suspects in 1994. In November 99, the government therefore refused to issue visas to Carla del Ponte – the main prosecutor. Only in December was Del Ponte allowed to enter the country. That same month, the UN officially apologized to Rwanda for its inability to prevent genocide.

The charges against Prime Minister Rwigema created an impossible situation in February 2000. Both the press and the rest of the public accused him of fraud with public funds and for having allowed the disposal of hazardous waste on the outskirts of Kigali. In March, he was replaced by Barnard Makuza – a hutu from the same party as Rwigema. That same month, President Bizimungu resigned. The reason was that he had failed to get any of his supporters into the new government. With 81 out of 86 votes, in April Parliament elected Paul Kagame as new president.

A United Nations report published in March 2000 accused Rwanda, Burkina Faso and Togo of supporting Angolan guerrilla UNITA. At the same time, Belgium was accused of a lack of interest in controlling the trade in diamonds illegally exported there from Angola. The Rwandan government disagreed with the report’s charges and threatened to bring an action against the World Organization.

In a 2000 report, the UN placed responsibility on Kagame for the 1994 attack against Habyarimana, which triggered the genocide.

In 2001, Democratic People’s Republic of Congo President Kabila was killed while troops from Rwanda controlled most of the country. Kagame went ifbm. the signing of a peace agreement meant that in 2002 Rwanda’s troops would be withdrawn from the Congo, against the disarmament of the Hutu militias.

In August 2003, a referendum was held in which 95.5% voted for Kagame’s continuation as president. In October, the first multi-party elections were held, giving a solid majority to the ruling Patriotic Front. Election observers from the EU criticized a number of irregularities during the elections. In Rwanda, the mass media continues to belong to the state, and a number of parties were banned by Kagame.