It is a 9-year compulsory school. The primary school is 4 years old. The high school is 7 years (5 + 2 years). In 2000, 85% of the relevant age group attended primary school. Tajik is the national language that everyone must learn. Russian was introduced as a school subject in 2005. Most minorities are taught their mother tongue. The country has universities in Dushanbe (founded 1948) and Khodsjent (1991).
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Within the borders of present-day Tajikistan, the first millennium BCE developed the first germs for civilizations in Central Asia and southern Siberia. Along the upper course of the Amudarja River, the state of Bactriano was formed. At the same time, the state of Sogdiana was formed in the valleys around the rivers Zeravsan and Kashkadaria. The inhabitants built villages with houses of clay and stone along the rivers, from which they fetched water for the irrigation of their crops consisting of wheat, barley and millet, and a variety of fruits. The sailing of the rivers was well developed, and the towns on the caravan roads linking Persia, China and India were important trading centers.
In the 6th century BCE, these areas were annexed by the Persian Ahemenide Empire. In the 4th century BC, Alexander conquered the Great Kingdoms of Bactria and Sogdiana. When his empire collapsed in the 3rd century, the state of Bactriano and the kingdom of Kushán re-emerged. They subsequently fell as the steppe people yuechzhi and the tojar crowd emerged. In the 4th and 5th centuries AD, Sogdiana and its border areas were invaded by the Ephthalites and in the 6th and 7th centuries by Turkish people from Central Asia. In the 7th century, Tajikistan and other areas of Central Asia became subject to the Arab khalifat. When this collapsed, the territories were integrated into the kingdoms of the Tahirids and Samanids. In the 9-10. century, the Tajik people developed their own ethnic identity.
Tajikistan flag source: Countryaah.com
In it 10-13. century Tajikistan was part of the Gaznevida, Karahanida and Shas Coresma empires. At the beginning of the 13th century, Tajikistan was subject to the influence of the Tatar Mongol Genghis Khan. In 1238, Tajik craftsman Tarabí led a popular revolt against this dominance. In it 14-17. century, the area was subject to the Timurids and the Uzbek Sheibanid dynasty. In the 17-19. century, the area was divided into many small principals whose chiefs periodically subjugated or rebelled against the Khans of Bukhara.
In the 1860s and 70s, the Russian empire conquered Central Asia and northern Tajikistan was placed under Russia. The Tajik population of Kuliab, Guissar, Karateguín and Darvaz was subject to the khanate of Bukhara, a Russian vassal. They came to form a province within the Khanate: eastern Bukhara. The repression on the part of Russian officials and feudal lords triggered a wide range of peasant revolts in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The most important of these took place in 1885 and was stated by Vosé.
During World War I, the native population of Central Asia and Kazakhstan rebelled in 1916 in protest of the mobilization to work for the Russian army. Following the Russian Revolution in 1917, Soviet power was established in northern Tajikistan. In April 1918, this area was incorporated into the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Turkestan. Still, a significant portion of the Tajiks remained under the emirate Bukhara, which existed until 1921. In early 1921, the Red Army occupied Dusanbe, but in February it was forced to retire from eastern Bukhara.
When Alim Khan’s resistance was finally broken in 1922, the Soviet power was proclaimed throughout Tajikistan. In 1924, the Socialist Soviet Republic of Uzbekistan was formed, in which Tajikistan was incorporated. In January 1925, the Gorno-Badajshán Autonomous Region was established on Pamir’s Plain. On November 16, 1929, Tajikistan was incorporated as a Federative Republic in the Soviet Union. Throughout the 1920s and 30s, agricultural reforms and water use were implemented. The collectivization of agriculture was followed by industrialization and a campaign called the “Cultural Revolution”.
After World War II, the Soviet power devised a plan for large-scale civil engineering works in Tajikistan – in particular, a system of canals and reservoirs integrated into the neighboring Uzbekistan. The purpose was to increase agricultural production in the region and in particular to increase cotton production. In the 1970s and 1980s, the administration’s mistakes and the economic slowdown became evident in Tajikistan. It was also one of the poorest republics of the Soviet Union with high unemployment. Especially among the youth who made up the majority of the population.