School and Education in Uruguay

Officially, the school is compulsory for 10 years from the children is 6 years. The primary school is 6 years old. The high school is 6 years (3 + 3 years). All education, including university education, is free. The country has the lowest rate of illiteracy in Latin America (about 2% in 2003). Private schools follow the same curricula as public schools and are controlled by the public. The country has six universities.

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1984 Parliamentary democracy

The dialogue on returning to parliamentary democracy collapsed, triggering widespread civil disobedience to the dictatorship. After a 24 hour general strike by PIT, the dialogue in January 84 was resumed, this time with the participation of Frente Amplio. The leader of the Blancos, Wilson Ferreira Aldunate, was arrested the same year when he returned from his exile, and just as the FA candidate, Líber Seregni, he was banned from participating in the elections later this year.

With the slogan of “changes in freedom”, Colorados with Julio María Sanguinetti won the election. After extensive national pressure, during its first month, the new government was forced to implement an amnesty that would release all political prisoners. Sanguinetti resumed the country’s diplomatic relations through support for a number of Latin American diplomatic initiatives and the establishment of diplomatic relations with Cuba and Nicaragua. During the first two years of the government, it benefited from positive international economic cycles, but then returned to the dictatorship’s neoliberal economic policy, which had faced widespread opposition from the people.

Uruguay Country Flag

Uruguay flag source: Countryaah.com

In December 86, with 75% of the vote, Parliament passed an amnesty to all military people accused of human rights violations. After extensive mobilization work, the left succeeded in bringing the resolution to a referendum, but through a joint effort by the government and the other right wing, as well as threats from the military about coup, managed to scare a majority of voters into voting for amnesty.

In May 89, the government secretly signed an agreement with the World Bank on the implementation of a ” structural adjustment program “, against which it supported the refinancing of the country’s foreign debt through international private banks. The government committed to the program to reduce social spending, privatize cracked banks that had been rescued by the state, and reform public companies to make them profitable and possible privatization objects.

In the November 89 election, Blancos won in 17 of the country’s 19 departments, got 37% of the vote and got their candidate, Luis Alberto Lacalle elected president. Frente Amplio won with Tabaré Vázquez in the lead mayoral election in the capital Montevideo – for the first time in the country’s history. 6 women were elected to the Chamber of Deputies and 7 others to the City Council in the capital. On the same occasion, a referendum was held that gave pensioners the right to have their pensions adjusted according to the development of salaries of public employees – a regulation that went beyond the government’s agreement with the World Bank.

Sanguinetti had been voted out because of his cutbacks. Lacalle now continued the same policy: taxes were raised and public companies privatized. In March 91, Uruguay adopted the same with Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay to form the South American common market, Mercosur.