According to Ehotelat, Veliky Novgorod is located in the northwestern part of Russia and is the administrative center of the Novgorod region. The city stands on the Volkhov River, 6 km from Lake Ilmen. St. Petersburg is located 190 km north of Veliky Novgorod. This is one of the most ancient cities in Russia. The first settlements at the source of the Volkhov River began to appear since the Neolithic period (4-3 millennium BC). In the 8th century AD on the site of the modern city was the center of numerous villages of Priilmenye. For the first time, the fortified settlement of Novgorod was mentioned in chronicles under the year 859. It was here that Russian statehood arose – in 862, the Scandinavian prince Rurik was invited to Novgorod to reign. By the end of the 9th century, Novgorod’s favorable geographical position helped it become a major commercial, political and cultural center of the northwestern lands. From the 10th century, campaigns of princes to the south began from here, as a result of which a path was laid “from the Varangians to the Greeks” and new lands were conquered.. Since then, the eldest son of the Grand Duke went to Novgorod to reign. At the end of the 10th century, Christianity was adopted in Novgorod, and in 989 the thirteen-domed Cathedral of Hagia Sophia of the Wisdom of God was built here.
Since the formation of the Old Russian state, Novgorod has striven for independence. In 1019, Prince Yaroslav the Wise, in gratitude for the support of the Novgorodians, gave Novgorod some freedom from Kiev. They continued to send governors here, but the Novgorodians themselves chose whether this prince would rule. In 1044, the construction of the Kremlin began in the city, where the wooden church of Hagia Sophia was being built.Wisdom of God. In 1136, freedom-loving Novgorodians, with the support of the Pskovites, expelled Prince Vsevolod and began to form the “Novgorod Feudal Republic”, which was controlled by the People’s Council. It is worth noting that in the republic there was a very high level of literacy not only among the nobility, but also among ordinary people, as evidenced by the numerous birch bark letters that were found by archaeologists in these places. During the existence of the republic, it has been attacked more than once. In 1142, the Swedes tried to capture Novgorod, in 1228 – the Finns, in 1234 – the Lithuanians, in 1240 – the combined army of the Swedes, Norwegians, Sumi and Yami, in 1241 – the Livonians, who in 1242 were defeated in the Battle of the Ice under the leadership of the Novgorod Prince Alexander Nevsky, in 1283 – the Swedes,
From the second half of the 14th century, the city began to be called Veliky Novgorod, and in the 15th century – Mr. Sovereign Veliky Novgorod. Only the Moscow Principality succeeded in capturing the independent republic in 1478. Since then, the city called Novgorod became part of the Muscovite state. In 1570, Ivan the Terrible, mindful of the freedom of the Novgorodians and their desire to be independent, defeated the city. During the Time of Troubles in the period from 1611 to 1617, Novgorod was occupied by the Swedish and was also completely devastated. Being on the northwestern outskirts of the state, Novgorod has long been one of its main outposts. At the beginning of the 18th century, with the advent of St. Petersburg, it lost its significance, but remained an important cultural and spiritual center. In 1727 Novgorod became a provincial town, and by the middle of the 19th century it had turned into a small provincial town. Novgorod was badly damaged during the German occupation in 1941-1944. Since 1944 it has become the center of the Novgorod region. In 1999, the historical name Veliky Novgorod was returned to the city.
The Volkhov River divides Veliky Novgorod into two parts – the left-bank Sofia and the right-bank Torgovaya. The main attraction of the Sofia side, of course, is the ancient Kremlin or, as it is also called – “Child”. It is located near Sofiyskaya embankment. From ancient times, a veche gathered in the Kremlin, at which the inhabitants of the city elected their posadnik, troops were sent from here, and chronicles were kept here. The Kremlin is a unique monument of ancient Russian architecture of the 11th-17th centuries. The Novgorod Kremlin was founded in 1044 under Prince Yaroslav the Wise and is one of the oldest defensive structures in Russia. It was originally made of wood, but was rebuilt in stone in the 14th century. It is worth noting that in the period from the 12th to the 15th century, the Kremlin was rebuilt several times.
Only some sections of the walls of the 14th century have survived to this day, the main buildings of the ancient Kremlin date back to 1484-1490. In terms of “Detinets” has an oval shape. The total length of its walls is 1385 m, their maximum thickness reaches 4 m. The walls and towers of the Kremlin are made of stone slabs and lined with brick. In the 15th century, the citadel had 13 towers, only 9 have survived to this day. Vladimirskaya Tower is located in the northeastern part of the Kremlin. It overlooks the river and has been a roadway since ancient times. Each of the five tiers of the tower has rows of loopholes. In its wall you can see the preserved fresco image of St. Nicholas. The Palace Tower is located in the southeastern part of the Kremlin, which is considered one of the most beautiful towers of “Detinets”, as it has clear proportions. The battlements of the 15th and 17th centuries have been preserved here, and the foundation of the tower dates back to 1400. The arches of the loopholes are decorated with fresco paintings of the 15th century. Next is the travel Spasskaya tower. It is immediately evident that the tower does not stand straight, but with an inclination. It is decorated with three round rosettes; several loopholes from the 17th century have also been preserved here. To the west you can see the Prince’s Tower. It got its name because of the nearby courtyard of the Moscow prince. To the north of the Prince’s tower rises the Kokuy tower. This is the tallest tower in the Kremlin. Its height is about 39 m. The final appearance of the Kokui tower took shape at the end of the 17th century, but still the lower part of the tower is the remains of a tower of the 15th century. The Kokui tower has always been an observation tower. Nowadays, you can also get to the observation deck of the tower and admire the city. Next comes the Pokrovskaya Tower. This is the only tower that protrudes beyond the Kremlin wall, and therefore the most fortified. It has 3-meter walls, and the facades are protected by 55 loopholes, including hinged battle loopholes characteristic of the 16th century. The tower got its name from the gate church of the Intercession attached to it in 1305, which was completely destroyed by the 16th century. At the beginning of the 16th century, a new church was erected next to the Pokrovskaya Tower, and it has survived to this day.
Since 1968, a Russian cuisine restaurant has been operating in the Intercession Tower and the Intercession Church. Next to the Pokrovskaya Tower stands the Zlatoust Tower. This five-tiered tower was a prison in the 16th century and was called Prison. It received its current name in the 17th century because of the church of St. John Chrysostom restored nearby. Near the Zlatoust tower in the Kremlin wall there is a passage arch from the beginning of the 19th century. In the northwestern part of the Kremlin, after the passage arch, the Metropolitan and Fedorovskaya towers rise. These towers differ from others in that they are round. Metropolitan Tower in the 17th century it was called Krasnaya. At this time, all the walls and towers of the Kremlin were whitewashed with lime, and the Metropolitan Tower was the only one left faced with brick. On its wall, scientists discovered Swedish inscriptions from the 17th century, when the city was besieged by the Swedes. Next comes Fedorovskaya Tower. Its name comes from the name of the church, which was erected not far from here in memory of the brother of Alexander Nevsky – Fedor.
Since ancient times, round towers have protected the isolated northwestern part of the Kremlin – Vladychny Dvor. The Vladychny Court was the residence of the archbishop, and was a fortress within a fortress with many outbuildings. Its oldest building is the Nikitsky building. Despite the fact that the walls of the building date back to the 17th century, the original building was erected in the 12th century. Near the Nikitsky building you can see the remains of the Archbishop’s Palace. One of the most significant buildings of the Vladychny Court is the Faceted Chamber.. The chamber served as a place where the Council of the Lords met and solemn receptions were held. It was built in 1433 jointly by Russian and German architects. The best preserved is the Ceremonial Hall of the Faceted Chamber. It is made in the Gothic style and has vaults decorated with facets, from which, apparently, the name of the chamber came from. The vaults of the chamber rest on a massive pillar installed in the center of the room. The niches contain frescoes from the early 15th century, as well as oil paintings from the early 19th century. Now in the Ceremonial Hall of the Faceted Chamber there is an exposition of the Novgorod State United Museum-Reserve – “Old Russian arts and crafts and jewelry art of the 11th – early 20th centuries”. Here are icons of the 12th century, made in the technique of cloisonné enamel, craters (ritual vessels for wine) of St. Sophia Cathedral, one of the most ancient zions (symbolic images of the Jerusalem Church of the Resurrection) – Small and Large chased zions, church utensils, icon frames, items of church vestments, local and imported coins, written monuments – Mstislav’s charter on parchment of the early 12th century, correspondence of local monasteries 16 – 17 centuries, Novgorod lead seals, as well as many other historical and cultural values. In addition, the gate church of St. Sergius of Radonezh has been preserved on the territory of the Vladychny Court. It was built in 1463 under Archbishop Jonah, who was in favor of joining monuments of writing – Mstislav’s charter on parchment of the early 12th century, correspondence of local monasteries of the 16th – 17th centuries, Novgorod lead seals, as well as many other historical and cultural values. In addition, the gate church of St. Sergius of Radonezh has been preserved on the territory of the Vladychny Court. It was built in 1463 under Archbishop Jonah, who was in favor of joining monuments of writing – Mstislav’s charter on parchment of the early 12th century, correspondence of local monasteries of the 16th – 17th centuries, Novgorod lead seals, as well as many other historical and cultural values. In addition, the gate church of St. Sergius of Radonezh has been preserved on the territory of the Vladychny Court. It was built in 1463 under Archbishop Jonah, who was in favor of joining Veliky Novgorod to the Moscow Principality. That is why he named the church after the Moscow saint. Inside it, several frescoes of the 15th century on the theme of the life of Sergius of Radonezh have been preserved. Next to the church in the 17th century, the Chasozvonya was erected with a height of 40 m. Not far from the Chasozvonya are the building of the Spiritual and Judgment Order (17th century) and Likhudov Corps (18th century).
The Vladychny Court adjoins the most ancient building of the Kremlin – the Hagia Sophia of the Wisdom of God. In addition, this cathedral is one of the oldest stone and church buildings in Russia. It was built in 1045 – 1050 by Byzantine and Kiev architects in the image of St. Sophia Cathedral in Kiev. The cathedral was the main religious building of the Novgorod Republic and is still a symbol of the city. It contained the city treasury, trade and military alliances were concluded, and the cathedral square was the venue for the national assembly, where the main issues of the republic were resolved. The height of the white-stone cathedral is 38 m. It has six domes. On the cross of the central cathedral dome is the figure of a dove. The dove is a symbol of the Holy Spirit. According to legend, this is the figure of a dove petrified with horror, which saw the cruel reprisal against the inhabitants of the city, which was committed in 1570 by Ivan the Terrible. During the Great Patriotic War, during one of the shelling of the city, the dome was knocked down and the cross was taken to Spain like a trophy. In 2004, after long negotiations between the Spanish and Russian authorities, the cross with the dove was returned to Veliky Novgorod.
On the western portal of the cathedral are the Magdeburg Gates. The gates are named after the German city of Magdeburg, where they were made. They were built in the 12th century in the Romanesque style and decorated with high reliefs and sculptures. Gates came to Veliky Novgorod from Sweden, like a war trophy, and were the main entrance to the cathedral. Painting the interior of the cathedral began only in the 12th century. Its interiors contain images from the 11th century and frescoes from the 12th century. They depict saints, prophets and biblical stories. A truly unique image of the Byzantine emperor Constantine, found in the Martirievskaya porch (southern gallery of the cathedral), which dates back to the 11th century. On the walls of the cathedral you can see the inscriptions of Novgorodians (graffiti), which are prayer appeals of both ordinary people and representatives of the princely family. Icons of the 11th-12th centuries are of great value, many of which are kept in the best museums in the country. In the Hagia Sophia The Wisdom of God has three iconostasis. The main Assumption five-tier iconostasis was finally formed by the beginning of the 16th century. The iconostasis of Sofia once contained the oldest icon of the cathedral – “Peter and Paul” (11th century), now it is on display at the Novgorod State United Museum-Reserve. In the iconostasis of the Nativity chapel there are icons of the 16th century. Every year many pilgrims go to Hagia Sophia Wisdom of God to worship his shrines. In front of the Main Assumption iconostasis, you can see the miraculous image of the Mother of God “The Sign”, next to it is a four-pointed stone cross of the 14th century, installed in honor of the victory on the Kulikovo field. Also in the cathedral are stored a copy of the icon of Our Lady of Tikhvin of the 15-16th centuries, an ancient image of the Savior on the throne of the 16th century, a cancer with the relics of St. Nikita, Bishop of Novgorod, who raised money to paint the temple, the relics of St. Cathedral, and the relics of Prince Theodore – brother of Alexander Nevsky, who died at the age of 14. In addition, the Holy Prince Mstislav Rostislavich and many archbishops are buried in the cathedral. Opposite the St. Sophia Cathedral there is a belfry. Presumably, it was built at the beginning of the 15th century and rebuilt in the 16th century. Today, at the base of the belfry, there are 5 ancient bells that were installed on the belfry earlier. Next to the belfry of the St. Sophia Cathedral is the Church of the Entry of the Lord into Jerusalem of the late 18th century.
In the central part of the Kremlin there is a monument “Millennium of Russia”. It was opened on September 8, 1862 in the presence of Emperor Alexander II, members of the imperial family and the imperial house, as well as representatives of the Synod and the Senate. The opening of the monument was timed to coincide with the millennium anniversary of the calling of the Varangians to Russia. The monument symbolizes the formation of Russian statehood and the establishment of Orthodoxy in Russia. The silhouette of the monument resembles the Monomakh’s hat, which is a symbol of autocracy, and is also similar to the veche bell. The total height of the monument is 15.7 m, the diameter of the pedestal is 9 m. The monument stands on a round pedestal, which is covered with high reliefs. High reliefs depict more than 100 prominent representatives of politics, science, art and literature from the time of Kievan Rus to the middle of the 19th century. They are divided into 4 groups – “Military people and heroes”, “Enlighteners”, ” In front of the cross is the figure of a Russian woman in a national costume, kneeling. She symbolizes In front of the cross is the figure of a Russian woman in a national costume, kneeling. She symbolizes Russia. The monument is vertically divided into three parts, symbolizing Orthodoxy, autocracy and nationality. Orthodoxy is depicted in the upper part by means of an angel blessing a woman who knelt before him. The autocracy is depicted in the middle part of the monument with 6 sculptural compositions depicting the main stages in the history of the state. Here you can see such events as the calling of the Varangians to Russia in 862 (sculptures of Rurik and the pagan god Perun), the baptism of Russia in 988-989 (sculptures of Prince Vladimir, a woman with a child and a Slav who renounces a pagan idol), the Battle of Kulikovo in 1380 (sculptures by Dmitry Donskoy and a defeated Tatar), the formation of a unified Moscow state at the end of the 15th century (sculptures of Prince Ivan III and a defeated Tatar, Lithuanian and German knight, and sculpture Siberian, symbolizing the annexation of Siberia), the beginning of the Romanov dynasty in 1613 (sculptures of Dmitry Pozharsky defending Mikhail Romanov, and Kuzma Minin, who presents Mikhail Romanov with a Monomakh’s hat and scepter) and the formation of the Russian Empire in 1721 (sculptures of an angel showing the way to Peter I, and the defeated Swede). The third lower part of the monument – a pedestal with high reliefs – symbolizes the nationality.
Opposite the monument “Millennium of Russia”, where the main expositions of the Novgorod United Museum-Reserve are located. The museum was founded in 1865 under the name of the Novgorod Museum of Antiquities. In 1976, after the merger of the main museums of the region, the Novgorod State United Museum-Reserve was formed. In 1992, the architectural monuments that make up the museum were included in the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage List. In the 16th century, on the site of the current building of the Presences, the Order Chamber was built. It was the main administrative building of the Voivodship Court. At the end of the 18th century, offices were located here, which served as the main administrative bodies of the city. In the 19th century, after a major fire, the building was rebuilt, it was then that the appearance of the modern building was formed, but the remains of the original building of the 16th century are still preserved in the lower part of the building.
The main entrance to the Public Places is surrounded by statues of lions. Inside there are several expositions of the Novgorod Museum-Reserve. The largest exposition, which occupies 18 halls, is “The History of Novgorod and the Novgorod Territory”. It tells about the history of the region from the Neolithic era to the present day. In the exposition halls, you can see hanging seals, items used by the medieval inhabitants of the city – wooden shovels, hoes, botals, floats, parts of leather shoes and fabric fragments, bone and carved wood products, children’s toys, checkers, chess, as well as collections of musical tools and leather masks, weapons, uniforms, awards, urban and rural costumes, imperial porcelain, needlework tools, materials of the great Russian poet G.R. Derzhavin and Count A.A. Arakcheev, documents and photographs. A truly unique collection of birch bark letters from the 11th-15th centuries. The exposition “Old Russian icon painting of the 11th – 17th centuries” presents about 120 icons. It houses a 2-meter Byzantine-style icon from St. Sophia Cathedral – “Peter and Paul” (11th century), one of the first signature icons “Nikola Lipny” by master Aleksa Petrov (13th century), icons of the 14th century “Boris and Gleb”, “Pokrov “and” The Annunciation with Fyodor Tiron”, the first Russian icon with historical content – “The Battle of Novgorodians with Suzdalians”, miniature icons of the 15-16th centuries and the image of the “Savior Not Made by Hands” of the 17th century. In the exposition “Old Russian carved wood of the 14th-17th centuries.” one of the most common crafts of ancient Novgorod is presented – woodcarving. These are objects of Christian worship, temple utensils, crosses, iconic and sculptural images, and a unique cross over 3 meters high of Savva Vishersky (the founder of the Savva-Vishera Monastery). In the exposition “Russian painting of the 18th-20th centuries.” about 200 works of art by Russian masters are exhibited – works by Levitsky, Shchedrin, Tropinin, Kiprensky, a portrait miniature of the 18th-19th centuries and the painting by P. B. Villevaldi “Opening of the monument to the Millennium of Russia” in Novgorod in 1862.
Next to the Palace Tower in the southeastern part of the Kremlin is the Church of St. Andrew Stratilates. It was built in the 17-18 centuries on the site of the chapel of Andrei Stratilat of the destroyed Borisoglebskaya church, which was erected in the 12th century. Inside the temple, the remains of fresco paintings of the 16-17th centuries depicting the Mother of God of the Sign, the Ascension of Christ, King David, saints and apostles have been preserved. Not far from the church stands the Judicial Town.
In the western part of the Kremlin, near the passage arch, there is a mass grave with the Eternal Flame. Residents of the city who died during the years of the Civil and Great Patriotic Wars are buried in the grave. It has a granite tombstone, consisting of 22 granite slabs. Opposite the tombstone, the Eternal Flame burns, it was lit from a torch delivered from the Field of Mars from Leningrad.
On the Sofia side of the city, outside the walls of the Kremlin, the remains of an ancient earthen rampart have been preserved. The outer belt of defensive fortifications around the Kremlin was built in the 12th century. A wooden wall more than 4 km long was erected here. In the 14th century, some parts of the walls were rebuilt in stone. During the Great Patriotic War, the shaft was pitted with trenches. At its southern end, on the banks of the Volkhov River, the White Tower of the 15th-16th centuries has been preserved. It was built of cobblestones and lined with bricks. The thickness of its walls reaches 5 m. There are loopholes on the tower. Sennaya Square is located in the center of the Old City (inside the earthen rampart) not far from the Kremlin. Here are the buildings of the Regional Administration and the former Nobility Assembly, which now houses the Museum of Fine Arts. It houses a collection of Russian paintings of the 18th-20th centuries, which was collected in the post-revolutionary years on the basis of works of art from noble estates and transferred works from various museum funds. Today, the museum has more than 6 thousand items, including works by Levitsky, Rokotov, Bryullov, Repin, Serov, Benois, paintings by artists of the Russian provinces, portrait miniatures and works by Soviet masters of the second half of the 20th century.
In the southern part of the Old City near the Volkhov River is the Church of the Life-Giving Trinity. It was built in 1369 at the expense of city merchants and was rebuilt many times. Not far from here, the Church of Vlasiy is interesting.. Its construction ended in 1407. It stands on the spot where, according to legend, the figure of the idol of Veles towered among the ancient Slavs. Also in the southern part of the city, not far from the rampart, is the Tithes Convent. The first chronicle mentions of the monastery date back to 1397. To this day, only the buildings of the monastery premises and the ruins of the Church of the Nativity of the Virgin (1397, rebuilt at the end of the 17th century) have survived from its buildings, which houses the State Museum of Artistic Culture of the Novgorod Land, where works by the best artists of Veliky Novgorod are exhibited. In the southern part of the Old Town, the Church of the Twelve Apostles built in 1455 is interesting. The Church of Theodore Stratilat is located in the northern part of the Old Town., which was laid in the 12th century and almost completely rebuilt in the 16th century, and the building of the Academic Drama Theater named after F.M. Dostoevsky.
Outside the city wall, several churches have also survived. Not far from the White Tower is the Church of the Assurance of Thomas and the Church of St. John the Merciful, which were built in the 15th century according to ancient Novgorod traditions and were part of the Resurrection “on the field” monastery. The Church of Peter and Paul stands on Sinichya Gora. In the northern part of the city, behind the earthen rampart, the churches of the Holy Spirit Monastery are of interest., founded in the 12th century – the Church of the Descent of the Holy Spirit (1357), the Church of the Life-Giving Trinity (second half of the 16th century). Here, in the northern part of the Old Town, is Zverin Monastery. It is first mentioned under 1148. The monastery was located in a dense forest, which was a great place for hunting, hence the name of the monastery – Zverin. The Cathedral of the Intercession of the Holy Virgin of the late 19th century, which was built on the site of one of the vestibules of the church of the same name from the 14th century, and the Church of Simeon the God-Receiver (1467), where you can see the remains of murals of the 15th century, made according to the type of icon painting, have been preserved here.
Trade side of Veliky Novgorod located on the right bank of the Volkhov River. A pedestrian bridge was built across the Volkhov River from the eastern wall of the Kremlin, where in the past the Prechistenskaya Tower stood at the passage arch. You can also get to the other side via the Alexander Nevsky Bridge, which is located a little to the north.
The pedestrian bridge leads directly to the Yaroslav’s Court, which is located opposite the Kremlin. Presumably in the 11th century, Prince Yaroslav ordered the construction of a palace on this site. The erected palace was very beautiful and for a long time was the residence of the Novgorod princes. In the period from the 11th to the 12th centuries, a veche square was located here. Yaroslav’s court adjoined the Novgorod market – the economic center of the city in the 11th-15th centuries. Today, Yaroslav’s Courtyard is one of the most popular attractions. Veliky Novgorod. Nikolsky Cathedral occupies a central place in its architecture. This is the oldest stone building of the Trade side. The cathedral was erected in 1113 after the Novgorodians miraculously acquired the icon of St. Nicholas, which helped heal the seriously ill Prince Mstislav Vladimirovich. The cathedral has a strict architecture and was built in ancient Kyiv traditions. Fragments of frescoes from the 12th century were found inside. In 1127-1130, the Church of John the Baptist on Opoki was built on the Yaroslav’s Court under Prince Vsevolod. The temple was transferred to the possession of rich merchants, who founded a merchant court in it. Subsequently, the church was rebuilt several times. After World War II, only ruins remained of it. Today, the single-domed temple of Ion the Baptist on Opoki is a copy of a 15th-century temple. Almost simultaneously with him, under Prince Vsevolod, the Church of the Assumption at the Market was built (1135). It is believed that this was the last princely building of the city. In the 12th century, between the Churches of the Assumption at the Market and John the Baptist at Opoki, there was a wooden church of George, which was rebuilt in stone in 1356. Nowadays, the church houses an exhibition museum-exhibition of photographs with views of the city of the late 19th – early 20th century.
Next to St. Nicholas Cathedral stands the Church of Paraskeva Pyatnitsa. It was erected at the expense of merchants in 1156 in honor of the patroness of trade, Paraskeva Pyatnitsa. The church was rebuilt in stone in the 13th century. The architecture of this one-domed temple is not at all characteristic of Novgorod architecture and is built in traditions similar to those of Smolensk. Two churches of the 16th century have been preserved on the Yaroslav’s Court – the Church of the Myrrh-bearing Women and the Church of Procopius. They were built by the merchants Syrkovs, who moved to Veliky Novgorod from Moscow after it was annexed to the Moscow principality. From the Novgorod market buildings of the 17th-19th centuries have survived to this day. Under Peter I, a vast Gostiny Dvor with stone trading rows was built here. Its buildings were badly damaged during the Great Patriotic War. Today, at this place you can see the Gate Tower with two travel arches and an arcade that limited the Novgorod market from the side of the river. A little to the west of the Church of John the Baptist on Opoki, in 1771, the Travel Palace was built, which was given the name Ekaterininsky. The palace was a resting place for kings who stayed in the city, and consisted of many buildings.
To the south of Yaroslav’s Courtyard there is an ensemble of churches of Michael the Archangel and the Annunciation, which are interconnected by a passage with a belfry. The churches were built in the 14th century and rebuilt in the 15th and 16th centuries. In addition, in the southern part of the Trade side, the Church of Elijah the Prophet, which was built in 1455 on the site of an ancient church of the late 12th century, the Church of Peter and Paul (a typical Novgorod church of the 14-15th centuries), the Church of Philip the Apostle and Nicholas the Wonderworker, formed in the beginning of the 17th century from two churches of the 16th century, one of which was built for peasants, and the other for boyar families.
On Ilyina Street there is an ancient Church of the Transfiguration of the Savior on Ilyina Street. It is an excellent example of Novgorod architecture of the 14th century. The church was built in 1374. Its facades are generously decorated with decorative elements, among which are built-in stone crosses and frescoes of Our Lady of the Sign and Our Lady and Child. It is proved that the interior of the church was painted by the Byzantine artist Theophanes the Greek, which makes it truly unique, because this is the only place in the world where the monumental painting of Theophanes the Greek has been preserved. In the Church of the Transfiguration of the Savior there is a branch of the Novgorod United Museum-Reserve. On the same street stands the five-domed Znamensky Cathedral. The cathedral was built at the end of the 17th century on the site of a dismantled temple of the 14th century. It received its name from the icon of the Mother of God “The Sign”, which was a city shrine. The legend says that this icon helped the Novgorodians in the fight against the Suzdalians – one of the enemy soldiers shot at the icon, which the Novgorod archbishop hung on the fortress wall, and pierced it, after which a miracle happened, the icon shed a tear and the Suzdalians were blinded. The icon of the Mother of God “The Sign” was kept in the Znamensky Cathedral until the 20th century, and now it is in the Hagia Sophia Wisdom of God. The cathedral is known for its murals, both internal and external. The paintings were made by a team of Kostroma craftsmen in 1702 in just a few months. Of the buildings of the cathedral, two-span painted holy gates and a hipped bell tower are interesting. In the Znamensky Cathedral there is a branch of the Novgorod United Museum-Reserve.
In the central part of the Trading side is the Church of Theodore Stratilat on the Brook. It was founded in 1360 by order of the Novgorod posadnik Semyon Andreevich. Like other churches of the 14th century, the Church of Theodore Stratilat is decorated with many decorative elements. Inside the temple, there are unique murals of the 14th century with motifs from the lives of the saints, similar to the frescoes of the Church of the Transfiguration of the Savior on Ilyina Street (but they are still attributed to Novgorod masters), graffiti of the 14th-15th centuries that surround the staircase leading to the choirs, and many caches.
On the Trade side, it is also worth seeing the Church of Clement and the Church of Demetrius of Thessalonica of the 14th century, the Church of Nikita the Martyr of the middle of the 16th century, next to which the Tsar’s Court was located at the end of the 16th century, the Church of the Nativity of the Virgin of the 14th century and the 16th century Mikhail Malein Church with a refectory and a bell tower left over from the Mikhalitsky Monastery, the 16th century Boris and Gleb Church and a monument to Alexander Nevsky.
Near the Church of Boris and Gleb are the remains of ancient earthen ramparts that border the northern part of the Trade Side. On Bolshaya Moskovskaya Street, the location of the ramparts is marked by an old outpost. Outside the ramparts, the well-preserved Church of St. John the Evangelist of the 14th century, the Church of the Nativity of Christ of the 14th century, which is absolutely undecorated and has rough forms, the Church of the Resurrection of Christ of the 16th century, and St. Anthony Monastery. Anthony Monastery was founded in the 12th century by St. Anthony the Roman. According to the life of the saints, Anthony came to Veliky Novgorod from Rome across the seas and rivers after being blown into the water in his homeland. At the place where he was washed ashore, he founded a monastery. The relics of St. Anthony are still kept in the monastery, just like the stone on which Anthony reached Novgorod. The main building of the monastery is the Cathedral of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary. He was pledged in 1117. The facades of the cathedral are not decorated, and the murals of the early 12th century in Romanesque motifs have been preserved inside. The boyars Alfanov brothers, Mikhail Tatishchev, Prince V.I. Odoevsky and famous Novgorod stolniks are buried in the cathedral. In addition, on the territory of the Antoniev Monastery, the Church of the Presentation of the Lord, built in the 16th century, has been preserved. In the 17th century, a refectory and treasury cells appeared next to the church, and in the 18th century, a library.
2 km south of Veliky Novgorod there is an archaeological monument of the 11th century Rurik’s settlement. Until the 9th century, the trade, craft and military-administrative center of the villages of Priilmenye was located on the territory of the Rurik settlement. In 862, Novgorodians invited the Scandinavian prince Rurik to reign, who founded his residence here. The residence was fortified with a moat and a rampart and was surrounded on all sides by water bodies. The prince and his squad lived here. From the 12th century to the 15th, when the power of the prince was limited by the people’s veche, the settlement became the permanent residence of all Novgorod princes. In addition, in these places, archaeologists discovered a Neolithic site dating back to the 2nd-3rd millennium BC. e. and settlement of the 1st millennium BC. e. Among the finds of the Rurik settlement, military equipment, Viking clothes, birch bark letters, lead princely seals, Arabic, Byzantine and Western European coins, glass and crystal beads.
Opposite the Rurik settlement, on the other side of the Volkhov River, stands one of the most ancient monasteries in Russia – St. Yuriev Monastery. The legend says that it was founded by Prince Yaroslav in 1030, however, its first annalistic references date back to 1119 and are associated with the construction of the main monastery building – the stone St. George’s Cathedral. The full name of the monastery is the monastery of the Holy Great Martyr, Victorious and Wonderworker George (in the common people George is called Yuri) – after the name that Yaroslav the Wise received in baptism. Under Prince Mstislav in the 12th century, the monastery was granted the possession of land, and by the 15th century it had become one of the richest monasteries in the principality. During this period, the St. George’s Cathedral was the main princely temple, which explains its impressive size. The height of the walls of the cathedral reaches 20 m, and inside it is very spacious. Fragments of fresco paintings of the 12th century have been preserved in the interior of the cathedral, however, most of them have been lost forever. Feodosia Mstislavovna, his older brother – Prince Fedor, as well as Prince Dmitry Shemyaka. At the end of the 18th century, when the monasteries began to lose their land according to the law, St. George’s Monastery fell into decay, however, by the beginning of the 19th century, restoration work began here. In 1841, a bell tower was erected in the monastery according to the project of Karl Rossi, and the Church of All Saints, the Cathedral of the Savior, monastic cells, the Church of the Exaltation and the Church of the Burning Bush were also built here. The monastery buildings were significantly damaged during the Great Patriotic War. The cathedral began to revive only at the end of the 20th century.
Not far from St. George’s Monastery on the shore of Lake Myachino (2 km south of Veliky Novgorod) is the Vitoslavlitsy Museum of Folk Wooden Architecture. It stands on the site where in ancient times the village of Vitoslavlitsy was located, from where its name came from. The museum complex began to take shape in 1964. Today, the Vitoslavlitsy Museum of Folk Wooden Architecture occupies an area of 30 hectares, on which 22 monuments of the 16th-20th centuries are located in the open air. 7 churches, 3 chapels, as well as huts, forges, granaries, barns and mills were transported here from different parts of the Novgorod region. In addition, the house of Countess Orlova, who was the patroness of St. George’s Monastery, of the 19th century, has been preserved here, which now houses the administration of the museum and exhibition halls. The most ancient attraction of the museum is the Church of the Nativity of the Virgin from the village of Peredki, which was built in 1531. The museum celebrates the main national holidays.
At the source of the Volkhov River, south of St. George’s Monastery, there is the Peryn tract, which was a cult place among the ancient Slavs. The sanctuary of the god Perun was built here. After the adoption of Christianity in 995, a wooden church of the Nativity of the Virgin was erected on this site, which laid the foundation for the Peryn Skete. Scholars believe that it was rebuilt in stone in 1226. Today, the church has been restored to its original form. This is a small one-domed temple, which is considered one of the smallest temples of pre-Mongolian Russia. Next to it, monastic cells of the 18th century have been preserved, which were built for the hermit monks of St. George’s Skete. From the Peryn tract, you can see the buildings on the right bank of the Volkhov River – Rurik’s settlement, and behind it – the Church of the Transfiguration of the Savior on Nereditsa and St. Nicholas on Lipna. single-headed Church of the Savior on Nereditsa was built in 1198 under Prince Yaroslav Vladimirovich. In 1199 all its walls were painted with frescoes. Unfortunately, most of them were lost during the Great Patriotic War. Among the most valuable surviving paintings are the images of the prophet Elijah and Peter of Alexandria. St. Nicholas Church on Lipno was built in 1292. It became one of the first churches built in the new traditions that were inherent in the architecture of the 14th and 15th centuries. The fresco paintings of the church walls were almost completely lost during the Great Patriotic War.
To the east of Veliky Novgorod on the Volotovo field is the Church of the Assumption (1352). Along with many buildings of the transitional period of the 13th-14th centuries, some elements are also missing in its architecture, for example, the partitioning of the walls with shoulder blades. For the first time, the rejection of this element was applied in the Peryn Skete and the Church of St. Nicholas on Lipna. Another church of the transition period is the Church of the Savior on Kovalev(1345), which was commissioned by the boyar Ontsifor Zhabin. Varlaamo-Khutynsky convent is located 7 km northeast of Novgorod on the right bank of the Volkhov River.. It was founded by Saint Barlaam. The history of the monastery is mentioned in the life of Varlaam. Varlaam grew up in a noble family, but after the death of his parents, he was tonsured at the Lissitz Monastery. Later, he decided to become a hermit and settled in a place called Khutyn. In 1192, Varlaam founded a wooden church on this site in the name of the Transfiguration of the Lord. This year is considered the date of foundation of the Khutyn Monastery. Later, the church was rebuilt in stone, but has not survived to this day. Gradually, monks began to come here, new buildings were erected in the monastery, and numerous lands were given to its possessions. The miracles of St. Varlaam glorified him all over the region, and to this day pilgrims from different parts of the country come to the monastery to venerate the relics of St. Varlaam. In 1515, the five-domed Spaso-Preobrazhensky Cathedral was built here, and in 1552 – the refectory church of Varlaam Khutynsky. These buildings have survived to this day. In 1611, the headquarters of the Swedes was located in the Khutynsky monastery, so the invaders did not touch it. In 1816, the poet Gavriil Romanovich Derzhavin was buried in the Theological chapel of the Transfiguration Cathedral. The monastery was badly damaged during the Great Patriotic War. Now it is a functioning convent.
The ruins of the Syrkov Monastery are interesting 5 km northwest of Novgorod. It was founded in the middle of the 16th century by the merchant Fyodor Syrkov, whose family moved to Veliky Novgorod from Moscow after it was annexed to the Moscow principality. The first building erected with the money of the Syrkovs was the Church of the Myrrh-bearing Women in Veliky Novgorod.
In the Novgorod region, 17 km southeast of Veliky Novgorod, the village of Kholynya is located.. Villagers are famous for their skill in growing cucumbers; in the past, Kholyn cucumbers were supplied to the royal court. It is also the center of a special method of pickling cucumbers. Barrels of cucumbers sink at the end of summer to the bottom of one of the local rivers and stay there under the ice all winter. In the village, in 1998, a museum of peasant life was opened, which tells about the life of local residents, starting from the 18th century. The village of Batetsky is located 65 km northwest of Veliky Novgorod. It arose near the railway station in 1891 and is now the administrative center of the Batetsky district of the Novgorod region. In the southern part of the Batetsky district, on the banks of the Luga River in the village of Tereboni, there is the former estate of the Decembrist Artamon Zakharyevich Muravyov where he was born in 1794. To the west along the river near the village of Maly Volochek is the famous hill Shum-mountain. Its height is 14 m, the diameter of the base is 70 m. The hill has 2 levels and is lined with stone slabs. According to assumptions, there is a burial chamber inside it, to which a passage leads from the top. Due to the emptiness inside the hill, it tends to amplify sounds. The legend says that Rurik is buried here. It is believed that Prince Rurik was killed near the Luga River. His body was thrown with stones and put on the grave of 12 soldiers. A few months later, the body was reburied in a mound, and the heads of the soldiers were cut off and buried along with the Grand Duke, placing them around him in the form of a solar circle. Archaeological excavations around Shum-mountain show that if not Rurik is buried in the burial ground, then certainly a revered person.
75 km north of Veliky Novgorod is the city of Chudovo, where since 1971 the house-museum of N.A. Nekrasov. The museum is located in a hunting lodge, which was acquired by the poet in 1871. Along with Nekrasov, other famous writers also came here. The museum displays the personal belongings of the writer and books from his library. The house-museum of Nekrasov has a branch in the nearby village of Syabrenitsy – the house-museum of G.I. Uspensky. It was created on the initiative of the writer’s children in the house where he lived from 1881 to 1892. Among the most valuable collections of the museum, one can single out a collection of personal belongings of G.I. Uspensky, a collection of documents and photographs of the Uspensky family, as well as a collection of graphic works by G.I. Uspensky.
50 km southwest Veliky Novgorod is located the urban-type settlement of Shimsk, which is the administrative center of the Shimsky district. Not far from here, on the shore of Lake Ilmen, stands the village of Korostyn. It was here in 1471 that the Novgorodians concluded an agreement with Ivan III on the annexation of Veliky Novgorod to the Moscow principality. The main attraction of the village is the travel palace of Alexander I. The palace was built in the 20s of the 19th century for the emperor, who often visited here. In addition, the Assumption Church of 1720 is interesting in the village. In the vicinity of the village of Korostyn, archaeologists found pagan hills and a Christian zhalnik of the 12th-14th centuries.
In the Soletsky district of the region southwest of Shimsk in the village of Velebitsy interesting is the Church of St. John the Theologian, which was built on a historical site, where in 1471 the battle of Novgorodians with the troops of Moscow Prince Ivan III took place.
To the south is the Volotovsky district. On the territory of the district there is a reserve Dolzhinskoye swamp an area of 3.5 thousand hectares. In fact, the Dolzhinskoye swamp is a lake that was formed as a result of the burning of a peat bog. But in the vicinity of the lake there are still wetlands. Not far from the village of Stone, a giant boulder brought here by a glacier is very interesting. Its length is approximately 10 m, width – 5 m, height – 3 m. Of the architectural monuments of the area, we can distinguish the Church of the Tikhvin Mother of God (1853) in the village of Uchno, the Church of the Annunciation (early 19th century) in the village of Porozhki and the Church of Fyodor Stratilat (19th century) in the village of Verekhnovo.
In the very south of the Novgorod region is the Kholmsky district, the center of which is the city of Kholm. The city of Kholm is located 200 km south of Veliky Novgorod. The first mention of the churchyard Kholmsky in the annals dates back to 1144. The churchyard was located on the way “from the Varangians to the Greeks”, which contributed to its rapid development. Hill received city status in 1777. The city was badly damaged during the Great Patriotic War. After the end of the war, some of the destroyed areas were never rebuilt.
South-west of the city of Kholm on the border with the Pskov region lies the state nature reserve “Rdeisky”. Together with the Polistovsky nature reserve in Pskov, it covers the Polistovsko-Lovatsky upland bog system on the watershed of the Polyst and Lovat rivers. This region is one of the largest collections of bog systems in Europe. The reserve “Rdeisky” was established in 1994. Its total area is 36.9 thousand hectares. The main task of the reserve is to preserve and study the array of sphagnum bogs and rare endangered species of plants and animals. In its eastern part, broad-leaved forests grow with a predominance of linden, maple, oak, ash and elm, in other parts, mainly spruce forests grow, and in the territory of the reserve, areas of spruce forests over 200 years old have been preserved. 36 species of mammals, 6 species of reptiles and amphibians and 9 species of fish have been identified in the reserve.
In the reserve “Rdeysky” among the forests and swamps is the Rdeysky Monastery. The date of its foundation is unknown, and the first mentions date back to the middle of the 17th century. In 1666, a temple was erected here in the name of the Monks Zosima and Savvaty (Solovki Wonderworkers), in 1669 – a temple in the name of the Transfiguration of the Lord. Both temples were wooden. The first stone building – the Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary – appeared here after a fire in the early 18th century. At the end of the 18th century the monastery was abolished. Its revival took place at the end of the 19th century, when the Bogoroditsko-Uspenskaya women’s community was created. Around the same time, the Assumption Cathedral was rebuilt. The monastery was badly damaged during the years of Soviet power. To this day, the remains of the fence, the Assumption Cathedral and the monastery cemetery have been preserved from the buildings of the monastery. Inside the Assumption Cathedral, you can see fragments of paintings, a marble iconostasis and inscriptions from the mid-19th century.
At the southern shore of Lake Ilmen, 99 km from Veliky Novgorod, there is the city of Staraya Russa . It is believed that the city was founded in the 10th century, however, the first annalistic mention of it dates back to 1167. The development of the city was due to the salt industry and trade relations with other lands through the path “from the Varangians to the Greeks.” In 1776 Staraya Russa received the status of a county town. At the beginning of the 19th century, salt production was stopped and on the basis of sources of mineral waters and healing mud, the balneo-mud resort “Staraya Russa” was created.. The resort exists to this day, being one of the oldest medical centers in the country. The healing water of the Staraya Russian springs contains chlorine, sodium and calcium, and the local lakes are sources of healing silt mud containing hydrogen sulfide, iron and mineral salts. The main focus of the resort is the treatment of diseases of the musculoskeletal and connective tissue, digestive organs, nervous system, respiratory organs, hearing aid, gynecological and skin diseases.
Among the architectural monuments in the city of Staraya Russa The Spaso-Preobrazhensky Monastery stands out. Presumably it was founded in the 12th century by Saint Martyrius. The current complex of monastic buildings was formed in the 17th century, only the main cathedral – the Cathedral of the Transfiguration of the Savior was erected in the 15th century on the site of a wooden church of the 12th century. Now the Spaso-Preobrazhensky Monastery houses the expositions of the Old Russian Museum of Local Lore. In the vicinity, it is worth seeing the Church of the Great Martyr Mina of the 14th century, where, according to legend, the Swedes who captured the city were blinded, the Church of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker of 1371, where the local history museum was located in Soviet times, the Trinity Church of the second half of the 17th century and the Resurrection Cathedral of the late 17th century. Be sure to visit the house-museum of F.M. Dostoevsky – Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky lived in Staraya Russa between 1872 and 1875 and in 1880. It was at this time that he wrote the novels “The Brothers Karamazov” and “Demons”. The museum was opened in 1981. Here, the interiors of his rooms are recreated with authentic furniture of the 19th century, with a collection of personal belongings, photographs, documents and books of Dostoevsky. Krestetsky district is located in the center of the Novgorod region. He is famous for such an ancient craft as the Krestets stitch, which was performed on linen. The homeland of the Krestets stitch is the village of Staroe Rakhino. Nowadays, there is even a museum of the “Krestets stitch” here. In the administrative center of the district – the village of Kresttsy – there is a regional museum of local lore, and not far from the village on Birch Hill there is a famous motorcycle track, where motorcycle racing competitions are held annually.
140 km east of Novgorod on the Valdai Upland stands the city of Okulovka. The settlement of Okulovka was first mentioned in cadastres in the 15th century. In 1851, a village of the same name was founded at the railway station. It received city status in 1965. The building of the railway station and the depot of the middle of the 19th century, several wooden houses of wealthy merchants of the 19th-20th centuries and the District Municipal Museum of Local Lore named after N.N. Miklukho-Maclay. The museum consists of seven expositions: “N.N. Miklukho-Maclay – our great countryman”, “County nobility”, “Peasant life”, “History of the city of Okulovka”, “Archaeological monuments of the Okulovsky region”, “Animal world of the Okulovsky region” and showroom. In addition, the orientalist Yuri Nikolayevich Roerich, the son of the artist Nicholas Konstantinovich Roerich, was born in Okulovka. From 1947 to 1952, the children’s writer Vitaly Valentinovich Bianki lived on the shores of Lake Borovno southwest of Okulovka, who called these places “a country of divas.” And in fact, the Okulovsky district is famous for its nature – there are more than 80 lakes here and part of the territory of the Valdaisky National Park is located.
National Park “Valdaisky” was created in 1990. Now it covers an area of 158.5 thousand hectares. The park is especially popular among tourists, as it is located near the cities of Moscow and St. Petersburg. Its main purpose is to preserve the unique lake-forest complex of the Valdai Upland. The hill consists of a series of moraine hills and ridges, between which lakes are located. In total, there are 76 lakes in the national park, the largest of which are Valdai, Velye, Dinner, Borovno, and part of Lake Seliger is also located on the territory of the park. The depth of large lakes does not exceed 10 m. The deepest lake in the park is Valdai, its maximum depth reaches 52 m. This lake is one of the cleanest in the world.
About 86% of the park is covered with forests. The main wood-forming species are birch, alder, aspen, mountain ash, spruce and pine. Oak forests are common in the southern part of the national park. There are about 50 species of mammals, at least 180 species of birds, 5 species of reptiles, 7 species of amphibians and about 45 species of fish in the park. Of the mammals, brown bear, elk, wolf, fox, pine marten, weasel, ermine, wild boar, raccoon dog, white hare, squirrel and beaver are common.
Lake Valdai and Lake Seliger are recognized fishing centers in Russia. Here you can catch pike, catfish, bream, ide, whitefish, vendace, burbot, pike perch, smelt, tench, asp, carp, golden and silver carp, and even European grayling, trout and lamprey. In addition, Valdai not only fishermen go, but also diving enthusiasts, both in summer and in winter (for ice-diving). The lake is famous for its good visibility, in some places it reaches 10 m. The immersion depth does not exceed 8 m. The water temperature in the lake in June-August ranges from +20 to +25 degrees, however, at a depth of 8 m it does not exceed +10 degrees. In winter, the water temperature in Valdai Lake is kept at +2..+3 degrees. Here you will see a wide variety of fish, especially interesting specimens (for example, predators) can be observed during night dives.
The shores of the lakes are literally strewn with recreation centers, so there are no problems with accommodation here. Medicinal sulphide-silt sapropelic mud is mined in the lakes of the park, which are used in the sanatoriums of the region.
There are many cultural attractions located in the Valdaisky National Park. Slavs lived on these lands since ancient times, since then there have been preserved sites of the 7th-6th centuries BC, settlements, settlements and burial mounds. On one of the islands of Valdai Lake, 10 km from the city of Valdai, there is one of the most valuable architectural monuments of the Novgorod region – the Iversky Bogoroditsky Svyatoozersky Monastery. The monastery was founded in 1653 by Patriarch Nikon.
The monuments of gardening and park art, preserved in the park from the noble estates of the 17-19 centuries, are very beautiful. In the village of Nikolskoye on the shore of Lake Velyo, the first Russian fish factory was located, opened by the founder of Russian practical ichthyology V.P. Vrassky in the middle of the 19th century. There is also a museum here. Vladimir Petrovich Vrassky. The city of Valdai is located on the territory of the Valdaisky National Park on the shores of Lake Valdai . It was founded at the end of the 15th century on the highway between Moscow and Novgorod. In the 19th century, Valdai was a significant trade and craft center on the way from St. Petersburg to Moscow. From the end of the 18th century to this day, the city is famous for its bell-casters. Since 1995, the museum of bells has been operating here, which tells everything about the history of the creation of bells in Russia, about the casting technique, about the different purposes of bells, and where bells from different eras and countries of the world are exhibited. In Valdai in the mansion of the noblewoman Mikhailova (19th century) there is another museum – the museum of the county town. It tells about the history of the Valdai region and reveals the peculiarity of the Russian province. Of the architectural sights of the city, one can single out the Church of the Apostles Peterand Paul of the mid-19th century, the Cathedral of the Holy Trinity in 1744, which rises in the center of the Cathedral Square, and the Church of the Entry of the Blessed Virgin into the Temple of the Lord in 1762. Borovichi is located 194 km southeast of Veliky Novgorod on the banks of the Msta River., which is the administrative center of the Borovichi district of the Novgorod region. The first mention of a row (industrial and commercial settlement) on the site of a modern city dates back to 1495, but churchyards on the Msta River began to be established as early as the 10th century under Princess Olga. In 1770, the settlement received the status of a city. It was a small county town, where factories for the production of refractory products operated. The main one – the refractories plant – was established in 1855. It still forms half of the city budget to this day. In 1905, the first arched bridge in Russia was opened in Borovichi. One of the oldest Russian monasteries is located in the city – the Holy Spirit Jacob Monastery 14th century. To this day, only the church in honor of the Holy Spirit has survived from the buildings of the monastery. It was erected in 1676 on the site of a wooden church of the 14th century and became the first stone building of the monastery. The holy spring of Abbess Taisia is also located on the territory of the monastery. Since 1918, the local history museum has been operating in the city. It includes expositions that tell about the prerequisites for the development of the region, about the history of the Borovichi region from the 10th century to the present day, about the development of the refractory and ceramic industries, about the life of the local population, about outstanding figures of science, art and literature in the Borovichi region and about the Borovichi period Soviet Russia. In addition, the building of the railway station of the 19th century is interesting in Borovichi.
35 km northeast of the city, on the shores of Lake Sheregodro, is the village of Konchanskoye-Suvorovskoye. In the 18th century it belonged to the Suvorov family. The great commander Alexander Vasilievich Suvorov visited here more than once: in 1784, in 1786 and in 1797-1799, while serving a link. In 1940, on the 150th anniversary of the capture of Izmail, a monument to Suvorov was erected in the village, in 1942, the house-museum of A.V. Suvorov, later transformed into a museum-reserve, and in 1950, in honor of him, the village of Konchanskoye received the name Konchanskoye-Suvorovskoye. Museum-reserve of A.V. Suvorov includes winter and summer manor houses, Suvorov Park, Mount Dubikha, where Suvorov liked to relax, the diorama “Suvorov’s Alpine Campaign” (installed in 1975), a church built at the expense of the commander in the 18-19 centuries, as well as Suvorov’s personal belongings and objects that tell about his life.
But not only Suvorov glorified the Borovichi region. Here, on the shores of Lake Piros, the artist N.K. Roerich, the writer V.Ya. lived in the village of Opechensky Posad for several years. Shishkov, and N.N. was born in the village of Yazykovo. Miklukho Maclay.
At the junction of Borovichsky, Khvoyninsky and Lyubytinsky districts of the Novgorod region there is a reserve “Karst lakes”. It was established in 1977 and covers an area of 17.7 thousand hectares. On the territory of the reserve, you can see karst and glacial lakes and the surrounding pine-spruce forests. Karst lakes are periodic floods in the valleys of streams and rivers that flow into sinkholes and caves. The lakes are interconnected by channels or underground watercourses. The water level in them fluctuates by 5-7 meters. Here are one of the largest lakes in the region – Sheregodro and Gorodno. 159 plant species have been identified on the territory of the reserve, of which 17 are rare. In addition, the reserve is located at the place of passage and nesting of many species of birds.
Lubytino urban-type settlement is located on the right bank of the Msta River north of the town of Borovichi. It is believed that it was founded under Princess Olga in the 10th century, when graveyards were established on the Msta River. The village has preserved the temple of the Assumption of the Virgin, erected in 1832 in honor of the victory in the Patriotic War of 1812, the residential building of the estate of Minister Goremykin of the late 19th century and the burial hills of the ancient Slavs (7-9 centuries) 8-10 m high, where archaeologists found a ceramic utensils and objects of the funeral cult. In the Lyubytinsky district, in the tract of the Ryokon desert, you can see the remains of the Ryokon monastery. The exact date of foundation of the monastery is unknown, it is believed that it arose no later than at the end of the 17th century. Buildings of the late 19th century have been preserved here, and the wooden Trinity Church of the monastery is now exhibited in the Vitoslavlitsy Museum of Wooden Architecture.
On Lake Kamenka, east of the village of Lyubytino, there is Suvorov’s house, which once belonged to the family of an outstanding commander. In terms of the number of archeological monuments, the Lyubytinsky district occupies one of the first places in the Novgorod region. Here, in the middle reaches of the Msta River, hills, burial mounds, zhalniki and settlements were discovered. Today, on the site of their accumulation, the construction of the Museum of Living History “Slavic Village” is underway, in which typical buildings of the ancient Slavs will be presented in the open air.