In Zimbabwe the education follows a 7-4-2 system, where the primary school lasts for 7 years, the secondary school for 4 years and the secondary school for 2 years. According to UNESCO, in 2011, 16% of the population over 15 years were illiterate.
Children start school at the age of six, but schooling is neither free nor compulsory. From 1980 to 1992, the school was free, but in 1992 school fees were introduced, also at the children’s stage. In the years following the release, the school system expanded dramatically. Later, the percentage of children in school has decreased again. In 2000, approx. 80% of children of school age in primary school.
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Higher education is offered at technical colleges, colleges and universities. On average, an academic year consists of 186 school days and is divided into semesters. Bachelor’s programs last from three to five years, while master’s degree programs last for one to two years.
Academic freedom is very limited in Zimbabwe. In the 2010 Education under Attack report, UNESCO describes widespread human rights violations for students and academics who are critical of the governing powers.
Zimbabwe flag source: Countryaah.com
In February 2016, Mugabe declared the country in a state of disaster due to drought that had then cost more than 16,000 cows and drastically reduced agricultural production. In some rural areas, production was only 25% of normal. Already in April 2015, the UN World Food Program calculated that the country’s food production was 50% lower than the previous year. The drought affected both Zimbabwe, South Africa, Malawi and Zambia. It was triggered by global climate change and was now further exacerbated by the El Niño phenomenon in the Pacific. The Zimbabwe Vulnerability Assessment Committee estimated in July that 4.1 million. residents would have difficulty obtaining food in January-March 2017.
Due. the difficult financial situation, in the fall of 2016, the government considered introducing government bond banknotes to pay the salaries of government employees. It sparked public protests among public servants who feared a return to hyperinflation in 2008.
A host of independent journalists were arrested or harassed by the authorities through 2016. The repression also hit the social media and especially the #ThisFlag opposition movement.
In February 2016, the EU renewed its sanctions on Zimbabwe and the travel ban on Mugabe and his wife Grace. In September, the European Parliament expressed concern over the attack on protesters in Zimbabwe and called on the country to respect the freedom of demonstration.
2017 Exit Mugabe
The contradictions in ZANU-PF increased rapidly in late 2017. In August, Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa was flown to South Africa to undergo treatment. Supposedly due to food poisoning. In October, he understood that President Mugabe’s wife was behind the poisoning attempt. It was rejected by the president himself, who on November 7, in turn, removed Mnangagwa from the vice-presidential post and instead replaced his wife. Mnangagwa fled the day after to South Africa. However, the former general and defense minister had more support in the military than the president himself, and on November 14, tanks rolled into Harare and surrounded the presidential palace. However, Mugabe refused to resign and the military did not want to carry out an actual military coup as it would trigger strong reactions from the AU and neighboring countries, who did not welcome military solutions to political problems. Mugabe’s power, however, was crumbling rapidly. On November 19, ZANU-PF removed him as party leader, but he continued to cling to power. On the 21st, Parliament decided to initiate a lawsuit against him for extremely bad behavior, inability and will to defend the Constitution, deliberate violation of the Constitution, and lack of physical and mental ability to perform the presidency. On the same evening, Mugabe resigned and left the office to Mnangagwa. Formally, Mugabe had not been ousted by a military coup, but because the party had ousted him and parliament had initiated court proceedings against him. Mnangagwa was formally posted on the post on November 24. He dissolved the incumbent government on the 27th and inaugurated his own new government on the 30th.
The opposition had hoped for new times in the country and the establishment of a unifying government, but despite the change of power at the presidential post, there seemed to be talk of old wine on new bottles. Mnangagwa continued the policy of the former president. For ZANU-PF, there was continuity of power and an elimination of the uncertainty that Mugabe’s appointment of his wife as vice president – and possibly future president – had given.